1.1.1 Aim: to investigate the
recognisability of internal (nose,
eyes, brows, mouth) and
external (head shape, hair, ears)
in facial recognition.
1.1.2 Lab experiment using an
independent measures design
involving 30 staff and students
from Stirling University.
1.1.3 Participants were given 10 pictures of
celebrities and asked to match the
correct composite image to the
celebrity from 40 composites given.
Group 1 were given complete
composites, group 2 was given only
external feature composites and group
3 were given only internal feature
1.1.4 42% of complete composites and external
features were correctly matched to the celeb
photo, compared to only 19.5% on internal
220.127.116.11 External features are more
important for facial recognition
than internal features and faces
are processed holistically.
1.2 Loftus et al: Factors affecting identification
1.2.1 Aim: to provide support for the weapon
focus effect when witnessing a crime.
1.2.2 Lab experiment involving 36 students at the
University of Washington, aged 18-31. Half were
recruited through an advertisement and were
paid $3.50 for their participation. The remainder
participated in exchange for extra credit in their
1.2.3 Participants were divided into two groups - the experimental
group and the control group. They were both shown 18 slides
of a queue in a Taco Time restaurant. In the control group
person B (second person in the queue) handed the cashier a
cheque. In the experimental condition, person B pulls out a
gun. The dependent variable was measured by a 20-item
multiple choice questionnaire. The participants were also
given a line-up of 12 head and shoulder photos in a
sequence and were asked to rate how confident they were of
their identification on a scale of 1-6 (1= guess, 6= very sure).
Researchers also used technology to measure eye fixation
on the gun or cheque.
1.2.4 39.8% of people correctly identified the
suspect in the cheque condition, compared to
11.1% in the gun. There was also a longer
eye fixation time on the gun compared to the
18.104.22.168 Participants spent longer looking at
the gun and therefore had more
difficulty identifying the suspect.
1.3 Fisher et al: Field test of the
1.3.1 Aim: to test the cognitive
interview (CI) in the field
22.214.171.124 Four basic principles within the CI: 1. Event-interview
similarity (psychological environment similar to the
environment of the original event. 2. Focused retrieval
(focused concentration = no interruptions and
encouragement). 3. Extensive retrieval (make as many
retrieval attempts as possible - imagining the scene from
another viewpoint). 4. Witness-compatible questioning
(interviewers should be flexible and alter their approach
to meet the needs to each witness.
1.3.2 16 detectives from the Robbery Division of Dade Country,
Florida. All with a minimum of 5 years experience within the
1.3.3 All participants were asked to record a selection of their
interviews using the standard interview technique. Then the
group was split into two groups. The first group continued
to use the standard interview technique, but the others
were given four, one hour sessions training them in CI.
They then implemented these techniques in their
1.3.4 Police officers who were
trained in the CI elicited 63%
more information than the
standard interview technique.
126.96.36.199 Cognitive interview techniques
seem to gain more information
without losing accuracy.
2 Interviewing Suspects
2.1 Inbau et al: Reid's 'Nine Steps'
2.1.1 1. Confront the
suspect with their
concerning the offence.
2.1.2 2. Offer the
shift blame (onto
2.1.3 3. Prevent/interrupt
the suspect if they
attempt to deny
2.1.4 4. Ignore denials, i.e.
suspect's explanations of
how/why they could not
have committed the offence.
2.1.5 5. Maintain good eye
contact, use suspect's first
2.1.6 6. When suspect
2.1.7 7. Offer two
2.1.8 8. Ensure witnesses
present when suspect
2.1.9 9. Ensure confession
is written down and
2.2 Mann et al: Detecting lies
2.2.1 Aim: to test police officers
ability to distinguish the truth
and lies during interviews with
2.2.2 Field experiment involving
99 police officers from Kent
(75 males + 24 females)
including 78 detectives.
2.2.3 Police officers were shown 54 video clips
of 14 suspects of real life police interviews.
The clips were of head to torso range.
They were asked... 1. truth or lie and 2.
what cues helped you reach your
2.2.4 It was found that police officers
could accurately detect lies 66% of
the time (better than chance). The
most frequently mentioned cues
were gaze, fidgeting and
contradictions of the story.
188.8.131.52 Police officers are better at detecting lies
than chance and the best lie detectors
relied on story cues are opposed to body
2.3 Gudjohnson et al: A case of
2.3.1 Aim: to document a
case of false confession
of a youth who was at
the time distressed and
2.3.2 17 year old, of
with no mental health
2.3.3 Case study of a youth accused of two murders
(two elderly women were found battered to death
in their home - their savings were missing and
their were signs of sexual assault). FC was
arrested due to inconsistencies with his
movements and he was spending more money
than usual. There was no forensic evidence -
purely circumstantial. After he was arrested, he
was denied access to a solicitor and was
interviewed at length (14 hours during the night)
by the police, leading to his confession. The next
day he repeated his confession in front of a
solicitor incriminating himself from jail.
184.108.40.206 After a year in jail, he was released by a court after
another person pleaded guilty to the crimes. This is a
clear case of a coerced confession where suspects
knowingly make a false confession in order to escape
the stress of the interview.
3 Offender Profiling
3.1 Canter et al:
theory of serial murder
3.1.1 Aim: to investigate if there is empirical
support for the organised/disorganised
typology classification of serial killers .
3.1.2 Participants: 100 cases of
serial, sexual homicides
committed by 100 US serial
killers (known as Missen
3.1.3 Method: Published Missen Corpus data
cross-checked with court reports and, where
possible, investigating officers. Content analysis
(which identified 39 different crime 'factors')
followed by multi-dimensional scaling test (SSA)
of co-occurrence of 39 factors. Crimes followed
Crime Classification Manual (CCM) in relation to
crime scene and offender characteristics (third
3.1.4 Twice as many disorganised as organised
crime-scene actions were identified,
suggesting that disorganised offenders are
more common or alternatively, easier to
identify. Only two crime-scene behaviours
occurred in the organised typologies in a
level of significantly above chance, which
were that the body was concealed in 70%
of cases and sexual activity in 75% of
3.2 Canter et al: Developments in
3.2.1 Aim: to identify behaviour
patterns from similarities
3.2.2 A content analysis was carried out on 66
sexual assault cases from various police
forces. The data was subjected to Canter's
smallest space analysis (a computer
programme which uses analysis to find
correlating patterns of behaviour).
3.2.3 5 variables were fond common to
the 66 cases. 1. Vaginal intercourse.
2. No reaction to the victim. 3.
Impersonal Language. 4. Surprise
attack. 5. Victim's clothing disturbed.
3.2.4 These are the most common
features of rape, and as such they
are not very useful for
distinguishing between different
types of rape crime scene,
3.3 Canter: The case of John Duffy
3.3.1 Canter become involved in this case in
1985 when the police (convinced that a
series of rapes/murders were the acts of
one man) asked if he could help catch the
man before he killed again.
3.3.2 Aim: to systematically document crimes, crime
scene details, chronology (subsequently
geography) in order to infer possible
behavioural characteristics of an offender,
using psychological principles and scientific
220.127.116.11 Systematic data evaluation
exercise in order to generate
offender profiling. Data
obtained from police data
3.3.3 Duffy was already on a police data base as he had been
interviewed in connection with an attack on his ex-wife. He was
also one of the nearly 2000 suspects linked to the crime by blood
group. However, it was Canter's geographical profiling approach
that was instrumental to his arrest. Duffy was the only suspect
who lived in the Kilburn area of London, predicted as the home
location of by Canter and exhibited other characteristics predicted