PSYA2 Stress

Ap Di
Mind Map by Ap Di, updated more than 1 year ago
Ap Di
Created by Ap Di almost 8 years ago


Psychology Mind Map on PSYA2 Stress, created by Ap Di on 04/15/2013.

Resource summary

PSYA2 Stress
  1. Life Changes and Workplace Stress
    1. Marmot et al. (1997)
      1. Investigation into the job strain model of stress: 1. High workload (creating greater job demands) 2. Low job control (deadlines, procedures)
        1. Higher grade employees would experience a high workload, where as the low grade civil servants would have low job control
        2. Holmes and Rahe: Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
          1. They asked 400 ppts to give 43 life changes a score
            1. High time to readjust = high score
              1. Scores were averaged and then that meant values could be judged by their impact
              2. Work Conflict
                1. Work and outside life conflict with eachother
                  1. Pomaki: With role conflict there are more absentees, lower performance, physical and mental health
                2. Immune System
                  1. Acute Stress Response
                    1. SAM: Adrenaline
                      1. Increased O2 and glucose to the brain and muscles
                        1. Suppress non-urgent bodily functions e.g digestion
                      2. SNS: Noradrenaline
                        1. Increased heartrate
                          1. Dilated pupils
                            1. Mobilise fat cells
                        2. ANS (autonomic nervous system)
                          1. 2 Parts: PSB (parasympathetic branch) SNS (sympathetic nervous system)
                            1. SNS and SAM = sympathetic medullary pathway
                            2. Kielcolt-Galser et al. (1984)
                              1. Impact of important examinations on medical students
                                1. Baseline for comparison was a blood sample one month beforehand
                                  1. Cell functioning was significantly lower in the second month
                                    1. Acute stress lowers the immune functioning
                                  2. Chronic Stress Response
                                    1. Pituitary adrenal system (PAS) controls the levels of cortisol
                                      1. The stressor is perceived, the hypothalamus and PVN releases CRF (corticotrophin) releasing factor
                                        1. CRF causes ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) to be released
                                          1. The adrenal cortex will release cortisol
                                            1. Will lower pain sensitivity
                                              1. Will give a quick burst of energy
                                              2. Impaired cognitive ability
                                                1. High blood pressure
                                                  1. Lowered immune system
                                        2. Malarkey et al (1994)
                                          1. Got 90 newly wed for a time period of 24 hours to discuss marital issues
                                            1. These discussions led to changes in adrenaline and nora adrenaline which in turn caused bad immune function
                                            2. Kiecolt-Glaser (2005)
                                              1. The blister wounds on the arms of the married couples after the discussions took longer to heal
                                            3. Defending the body against antigens
                                              1. 1: Form a barrier e.g mucus inside the airways
                                                1. 2. Detect and eliminate the antibodies before they reproduce
                                                  1. 3. Eliminate the antibodies after reproduction
                                            4. Daily Hassles and Uplifts
                                              1. HSUP (hassles and uplifts scale)
                                                1. Uplifts: Small positive experiences which may offset hassles
                                                  1. Daily Hassles: Minor day to day stressors which may frustrate or annoy a person
                                                  2. Amplification effect
                                                    1. Acumilation effect
                                                    2. Personalities and Stress
                                                      1. Type A: Impatient, competitive, achievement striving, hostile and aggressive
                                                        1. Type B: Patient, relaxed, easy going
                                                          1. Hardy: Control, commitment and challenge
                                                            1. Friedman and Rosenman
                                                              1. Back up type A personality
                                                                1. High blood pressure, high stress hormones, linked to CHD
                                                              2. Physiological and Psychological Treatments
                                                                1. Psychological
                                                                  1. SIT (stress inoculation training)
                                                                    1. 1:Conceptualisation phase
                                                                      1. 2. Skills aquisition phase
                                                                        1. 3. Application phase
                                                                    2. Hardiness Training
                                                                      1. 1. Focusing
                                                                        1. 2. Relieving stressful encounters
                                                                          1. 3. Self improvement
                                                                    3. Physiological
                                                                      1. Beta Blockers (BBs)
                                                                        1. Bind to the receptors on the surface of the stimulated organ
                                                                          1. Causing the blockedge makes it harder to stimulate
                                                                            1. Causes a decreased heart rate, causing less anxious behaviour
                                                                        2. Benzodiazepines (BZs)
                                                                          1. Bind to GABA, increasing efficiency
                                                                            1. More chloride ions to the brain
                                                                              1. Difficult to stimulate other neurotransmitters so it slows CNS
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