ESL Approaches and Methods

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ESL approaches and methods described in detail.

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ESL Approaches and Methods
1 Grammatical/Grammar Based
1.1 There is an emphasis on teacher-centered rules and structure of the target language. This approach believes that for students to learn their second language, they must memorize the language rules and the sentence patterns in a sequences and methodological curriculum.
1.1.1 Methods
1.1.1.1 Grammar-Translation
1.1.1.1.1 The teacher first presents the language rules to the students. Students then memorize a vocabulary list. Finally, the students apply the language rules and memorized vocabulary to translating a written text. This method focuses mostly on grammatical accuracy skills instead of meaning.
1.1.1.2 Direct
1.1.1.2.1 This method focuses on the direct immersion into a student's second language. During this method, teachers model and students practice. The students are not allowed to use their first language. Vocabulary is taught in context through choral responses and dialogue. Objects, photographs, diagrams, and drawings are often used.
1.1.1.3 Audiolingual Method
1.1.1.3.1 The audiolingual method presented dialogue and pattern drills that were designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a sequenced manner. During this method, there is a minimal use of the student's first language. This method emphasizes drills, repetitive practice, and error correction.
2 Communicative
2.1 This approach is student-centered, and places an emphasis on communication and meaningful acquisition of knowledge.
2.1.1 Methods
2.1.1.1 Silent Way
2.1.1.1.1 The students are presented with different linguistic situations in which they are to observe and then describe the their second language, focusing on the actions that they witnessed.
2.1.1.1.1.1 The student's first language is not used. The teacher models, talks, and reinforces through plenty of repetition and signals. This method is seldom content-based.
2.1.1.2 Natural Way
2.1.1.2.1 This method stresses comprehensible input. There is minimal error correction. The student is allowed to use their first language, and it is not necessarily content-based.
2.1.1.3 Suggestopedia
2.1.1.3.1 In this method there is an emphasis on a relaxed physical setting, minimal error correction, and students are allowed to use their first language for explanations.
2.1.1.4 Integrated Content-Based
2.1.1.4.1 This method emphasizes second language development. There is a focus on language and content integration, and subject areas are integrated into thematic units.
2.1.1.5 Sheltered Instruction
2.1.1.5.1 This method includes a grade-level modified curriculum, the teacher provides scaffolded instruction, plenty of visuals and cooperative learning are used.
3 Cognitive
3.1 This approach is learner-centered. The focus is on the explicit teaching of learning strategies in communicative ways.
3.1.1 CALLA (cognitive academic language learning approach)
3.1.1.1 Includes developmentally appropriate language instruction and has a focus on CALP development in a student's first and second languages.
3.1.1.1.1 This method focuses on prior knowledge.
3.1.1.1.1.1 There is explicit instruction in metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective learning strategies.
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