Models of Addictive Behaviour - Gambling

Sandie Garland
Mind Map by Sandie Garland, updated more than 1 year ago
Sandie Garland
Created by Sandie Garland about 5 years ago
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AQA A2 Psychology - PSYA4 Section B - Addictive Behaviour

Resource summary

Models of Addictive Behaviour - Gambling
1 LEARNING
1.1 Initiation
1.1.1 Operant Conditioning
1.1.1.1 When you gamble you are positively rewarded by gaining money and having a dopamine rush - positively reinforced - unconsciously encouraged to repeat the behaviour
1.1.1.1.1 Custar (1982): people who win big when they first start gambling are more likely to become compulsive gamblers
1.1.1.2 Gambling is an example of random ratio schedule - body does not habituate - maximising the biological reward - stay motivated without rewards
1.1.2 Social Learning Theory
1.1.2.1 Watch a role model gamble and see them win money and thier popularity increase - you undergo vicarious reinforcement - imitate their behaviour to gain the rewards
1.1.2.1.1 Gupta (1998): 86% of children who gambled did so with family
1.2 Maintenance
1.2.1 Classical Conditioning
1.2.1.1 Over time an unconscious association formed between what is around you when you gamble and the rewards of gambling - acts as a trigger
1.2.1.2 Eg. when you gamble at a slot machine there are lots of bright lights - if you see bright lights there is an overwhelming impulse to gamble - lights act as a trigger
1.3 Relapse
1.4 Raylu
1.5 PA: more control over films
1.6 Nurture
2 COGNITIVE
2.1 Initiation
2.1.1 Self Medication Model
2.1.1.1 Use gambling to treat psychological problems - percieved as dealing with the problem - distractor from unhappiness or boredom
2.1.1.1.1 Becona (1996): depression is evident in the majority of PG
2.1.2 Theory of Reasoned Action
2.1.2.1 Both attitudes are norms and combined to create the behaviour intention which determines the actual behaviour - attitude: I'm feeling lucky, norms: sociable - do it
2.2 Maintenance
2.2.1 Self Medication Model
2.2.1.1 Irrational beliefs - gambler's fallacy - belief that random events can be affected by recent events - their luck will change - superstitious behaviours will effect eg. lucky die
2.2.1.1.1 Griffiths (1994): regular gamblers were more likely to believe there were skilled and to make irrational verbalisations during play - expressed loses are near wins
2.3 Relapse
2.4 Raylu
3 BIOLOGICAL
3.1 Initiation
3.1.1 Born with A1 allele of the DRD2 gene - suffer a deficit of dopamine - constantly under rewarded - need to stimulate the mesolimbic system - gambling provides disproportionate reward
3.1.1.1 Comings (1998): 50% of PGs have the A1 allele of DRD2 compared to only 25% of the general public
3.1.1.2 Bergh: lower levels of dopamine in PG
3.2 Maintenance
3.2.1 Random ratio schedule of reinforcement - brain does not habituate - reward level does not drop
3.3 Relapse
3.3.1 If you have the A1 allele of DRD2 you are more likely to relapse - without gambling mesolimbic system is not stimulated - gamble again
3.3.2 No gambling = no reward - lower than normal dopamine levels - physical dependance on gamlbing - gamble again to raise dopamine levels
3.4 Raylu
3.5 Deterministic - stereotypeing? not motivation to improve?
3.6 PA: drugs - NRT
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