ESL Approaches and Methods

Cindy Robertson
Mind Map by Cindy Robertson, updated more than 1 year ago
Cindy Robertson
Created by Cindy Robertson about 4 years ago


Approaches and Methods for ESL

Resource summary

ESL Approaches and Methods
1 Grammatical
1.1 Grammatical approach is a teacher-centered means of providing second language instruction.
1.2 Emphasis on the rules and structure of target language.
1.2.1 METHODS Grammar-Translation More emphasis on development of reading, writing, and grammar. Less emphasis on oral language development Rules of grammar are taught holistically Direct Focus on total immersion in L2 No use of L1 allowed in the classroom Involves an open-ended response to materials the teacher brings into the classoom Audiolingual Grammar structures are carefully sequenced and taught APPROACHES Drill and practice Rote memorization Dialogue memorization Repetition Mnemonics Kinetics Minimal use of L1 Emphasizes error correction, drills, and repetitive practice
1.3 Origins in the 19th century classical Greek and Latin instruction
2 Communicative
2.1 It is a more research-and theory-based approach to second language instruction.
2.1.1 METHODS Silent Way Teacher modeling/talk Reinforcement through repetition/signals Seldom content-based Natural Way Stresses comprehensible input Minimal error correction/production Acceptance of students' L1 Not necessarily content-based Suggestopedia Emphasis on relaxed physical setting Minimal error correction Use of L1 for explanations Not necessarily content-based Sheltered Instruction Grade-level modified curriculum Scaffolded instruction Visuals, cooperative learning, and guarded vocabulary Integrated Content-Based Emphasizes L2 development Focus on cintent and language integration Subject area integrated into thematic units
2.1.2 Approaches Scaffolding Guarded Vocabulary Cooperative learning Hands-on activities Reduced use of idioms Manipulatives and realia Simulations/big books Heterogeneous grouping
2.2 Student-centered emphasis on communication and meaningful acquisition of knowledge
2.3 Primary origins in 1960s and 1970s research on language learning through communication, constructivism, and social interaction
3 Cognitive
3.1 Is an emergent product of efforts to examine and analyze the cognitive psychological side of learning, language learning, and instruction to promote language learning.
3.2 Learner-centered focus on explicit teaching of learning strategies in communicative ways.
3.3 Origing in 1980s and 1990s research on learning functions, memory, and cognition
3.4.1 CALLA Developmentally appropriate language instruction Intentional focus on CALP development in L1 and L2 as related to content areas Focus on prior knowledge Explicit instruction in the following learning strategies: metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective CALLA INSTRUCTIONAL CONCEPTS Focuses on what is going on in students' minds rather than in their overt responses Literacy accross the Curriculum Focuses on the language demands of content subjects and seeks to integrate literacy and content instruction Language Experience Approach Students learn that what is said can be written down and that what has been written down can be read. Balanced Reading Approach Children do not learn to read in only one way, but that individual variation in literacy development Process Writing Students learn that writing involves thinking, reflection, and multiple revisions Cooperative Learning Students work in carefully selected and organized groups on learning tasks that are structured so that all studenets share in the responsibility for completing the task. Inquiry Approaches Moves students through an inquiry cycle designed to help them learn from experiences Standard-Based Instruction Based on national or state standards for each content subject area
3.5.1 Cooperative learning
3.5.2 Explicit LS instruction
3.5.3 Maximizing content and language objectives
3.5.4 KWL chart
3.5.5 Questioning
3.5.6 Word Walls
3.5.7 Outlines
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