ESL Approaches and Methods

Cindy Robertson
Mind Map by Cindy Robertson, updated more than 1 year ago
Cindy Robertson
Created by Cindy Robertson about 4 years ago
13
0

Description

Approaches and Methods for ESL
Tags

Resource summary

ESL Approaches and Methods
1 Grammatical
1.1 Grammatical approach is a teacher-centered means of providing second language instruction.
1.2 Emphasis on the rules and structure of target language.
1.2.1 METHODS
1.2.1.1 Grammar-Translation
1.2.1.1.1 More emphasis on development of reading, writing, and grammar.
1.2.1.1.2 Less emphasis on oral language development
1.2.1.1.3 Rules of grammar are taught holistically
1.2.1.2 Direct
1.2.1.2.1 Focus on total immersion in L2
1.2.1.2.2 No use of L1 allowed in the classroom
1.2.1.2.3 Involves an open-ended response to materials the teacher brings into the classoom
1.2.1.3 Audiolingual
1.2.1.3.1 Grammar structures are carefully sequenced and taught
1.2.1.3.1.1 APPROACHES
1.2.1.3.1.1.1 Drill and practice
1.2.1.3.1.1.2 Rote memorization
1.2.1.3.1.1.3 Dialogue memorization
1.2.1.3.1.1.4 Repetition
1.2.1.3.1.1.5 Mnemonics
1.2.1.3.1.1.6 Kinetics
1.2.1.3.2 Minimal use of L1
1.2.1.3.3 Emphasizes error correction, drills, and repetitive practice
1.3 Origins in the 19th century classical Greek and Latin instruction
2 Communicative
2.1 It is a more research-and theory-based approach to second language instruction.
2.1.1 METHODS
2.1.1.1 Silent Way
2.1.1.1.1 Teacher modeling/talk
2.1.1.1.2 Reinforcement through repetition/signals
2.1.1.1.3 Seldom content-based
2.1.1.2 Natural Way
2.1.1.2.1 Stresses comprehensible input
2.1.1.2.2 Minimal error correction/production
2.1.1.2.3 Acceptance of students' L1
2.1.1.2.4 Not necessarily content-based
2.1.1.3 Suggestopedia
2.1.1.3.1 Emphasis on relaxed physical setting
2.1.1.3.2 Minimal error correction
2.1.1.3.3 Use of L1 for explanations
2.1.1.3.4 Not necessarily content-based
2.1.1.4 Sheltered Instruction
2.1.1.4.1 Grade-level modified curriculum
2.1.1.4.2 Scaffolded instruction
2.1.1.4.3 Visuals, cooperative learning, and guarded vocabulary
2.1.1.5 Integrated Content-Based
2.1.1.5.1 Emphasizes L2 development
2.1.1.5.2 Focus on cintent and language integration
2.1.1.5.3 Subject area integrated into thematic units
2.1.2 Approaches
2.1.2.1 Scaffolding
2.1.2.2 Guarded Vocabulary
2.1.2.3 Cooperative learning
2.1.2.4 Hands-on activities
2.1.2.5 Reduced use of idioms
2.1.2.6 Manipulatives and realia
2.1.2.7 Simulations/big books
2.1.2.8 Heterogeneous grouping
2.2 Student-centered emphasis on communication and meaningful acquisition of knowledge
2.3 Primary origins in 1960s and 1970s research on language learning through communication, constructivism, and social interaction
3 Cognitive
3.1 Is an emergent product of efforts to examine and analyze the cognitive psychological side of learning, language learning, and instruction to promote language learning.
3.2 Learner-centered focus on explicit teaching of learning strategies in communicative ways.
3.3 Origing in 1980s and 1990s research on learning functions, memory, and cognition
3.4 METHODS
3.4.1 CALLA
3.4.1.1 Developmentally appropriate language instruction
3.4.1.2 Intentional focus on CALP development in L1 and L2 as related to content areas
3.4.1.3 Focus on prior knowledge
3.4.1.4 Explicit instruction in the following learning strategies: metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective
3.4.1.5 CALLA INSTRUCTIONAL CONCEPTS
3.4.1.5.1 Focuses on what is going on in students' minds rather than in their overt responses
3.4.1.5.2 Literacy accross the Curriculum
3.4.1.5.2.1 Focuses on the language demands of content subjects and seeks to integrate literacy and content instruction
3.4.1.5.3 Language Experience Approach
3.4.1.5.3.1 Students learn that what is said can be written down and that what has been written down can be read.
3.4.1.5.4 Balanced Reading Approach
3.4.1.5.4.1 Children do not learn to read in only one way, but that individual variation in literacy development
3.4.1.5.5 Process Writing
3.4.1.5.5.1 Students learn that writing involves thinking, reflection, and multiple revisions
3.4.1.5.6 Cooperative Learning
3.4.1.5.6.1 Students work in carefully selected and organized groups on learning tasks that are structured so that all studenets share in the responsibility for completing the task.
3.4.1.5.7 Inquiry Approaches
3.4.1.5.7.1 Moves students through an inquiry cycle designed to help them learn from experiences
3.4.1.5.8 Standard-Based Instruction
3.4.1.5.8.1 Based on national or state standards for each content subject area
3.5 APPROACHES
3.5.1 Cooperative learning
3.5.2 Explicit LS instruction
3.5.3 Maximizing content and language objectives
3.5.4 KWL chart
3.5.5 Questioning
3.5.6 Word Walls
3.5.7 Outlines
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

Psychology | Unit 4 | Addiction - Explanations
showmestarlight
Memory: AS Psychology
rae_olamide_xo
Cognitive Psychology - Capacity and encoding
Tess W
Age as a factor affecting eye witness testimony
Tess W
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Anja Starc
Models of Addictive Behaviour - Gambling
Sandie Garland
Cognitive approach mind map
kikileah97
Multi Store Model and Memory
s42099
Cognitive Psychology Core Studies
Amy Darvill
DD303 Language Processing
Ken Adams
Approaches in Psychology - A level
Ellie Porter