ESL Approaches and Methods

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ESL Approaches and Methods

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ESL Approaches and Methods
1 Grammatical Approach
1.1 teacher-centered emphasis on the rules and structure of target language
1.1.1 More emphasis on development of reading
1.1.2 rules of grammar are taught holistically
1.1.3 Direct: focus on total immersion in L2; involves an open-ended response Audiolingual: grammar striations are carefully delivered and taught; Minimal use of L1
1.2 This approach does not connect to any method because it is teacher-centered.
1.3 examples: drill and practice and rote memorization
1.4 Origins in nineteeth-century classical Greek and Latin instruction
2 The Calla Method
2.1 Conceptional Framework: scientifically based research, what and how it is learned, provides guidance for instruction
2.2 select content that aligns with national or state standards for each subject and the TESOL K-12 standards
2.3 includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing
2.4 explicit instruction using language strategies
2.5 students will benefit from being mentally active and analyze/ reflect on their learning activities
2.6 connects to the Cognitive Approach
3 Sheltered Method of Instruction
3.1 Connects to the Communicative Approach
3.2 used to target academic language proficiency and deeper conceptional understanding of the content materials
3.3 Strategies: hands-on activities, cooperative learning, guarded vocabulary, visuals
3.4 involves students working collaboratively in heterogenous groups that target individual and group learning goals
3.5 teacher has conscious control of their language in the classroom
3.6 use photos, media, computers, drawings, charts, tables, diagrams, and more to illustrate concepts
3.7 several benefits to this method: examples are target multiple learning styles, provide support, prompts content comprehension, develops listening skills, reduces affective filter, provides visual links to key concepts and vocabulary, etc.
4 Content-Based Method
4.1 This method was grounded in the communicative approach because it emphasizes communication, authentic use of literacy in context, and cultivation of all literacy domains.
4.2 incorporates multiple subjects into each lesson
4.3 language across the curriculum- this found that directing the attention of learners to content language more specifically addressed the language acquisition needs of CLD students in the academic context.
4.4 benefits: learning facts and skills within meaningful context allows a person to store the material in memory with less time required for practicing and rehearsing the information
4.5 Planning, Instruction, Assessment
4.5.1 examples of visual support and GO to provide in ICB: semantic webs, KWL charts, T-charts, Venn diagrams, categorization or classification charts
5 Cognitive Approach
5.1 Origins in 1980s and 1990s research on learning functions, memory, and cognition
5.2 Learner-centered focus on explicit teaching of LS in communicative ways
5.3 Connects to the CALLA Method
5.3.1 developmentally appropriate language instruction; intentional focus on CALP development in L1 and L2 as related to content areas; focus on prior knowledge; explicit instruction in Metacognitive, Cognitive, and Social/ affective
5.3.2
6 Communicative Approach
6.1 research on language learning through communication, constructivism, and social interaction
6.2 Student-centered emphasis on communication and meaningful acquisition of knowledge
6.3 Connects to the Content-Based Method and Sheltered Instruction
6.3.1 Contentent Based: emphasizes L2 development; focuses on content and language integration; subject area integrated into thematic units
6.3.2 Sheltered Instruction: Grade-level modified curriculum; scaffolded instruction; visuals, cooperative learning, and guarded vocabulary
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