Abnormality

reidl003
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Psychology (Abnormality) Mind Map on Abnormality, created by reidl003 on 04/16/2013.

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reidl003
Created by reidl003 over 6 years ago
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Abnormality
1 Definitions of Abnormality
1.1 Deviation from social norms
1.2 Failure to function adequately
1.3 Deviation from ideal mental health
1.4 Rosenhan and Seligman
2 Biological Model of Abnormality
2.1 Abnormal behaviours result from physical problems and should be treated medically
2.2 Infection
2.2.1 Mental illness has been linked to germs and bacteria
2.3 Genetic factors
2.3.1 People may inherit predispositions to certain illnesses through genes which pass from generation to generation
2.4 Biochemistry
2.4.1 Chemical interaction in the body
2.5 Neuroanatomy
2.5.1 Physical differences in the nervous system
2.6 Evaluation
2.6.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • -Based on well established science - Can help provide treatments - Removes blame from patient
2.6.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • - Is mental illness the same as physical illness? - Ethical issues with drugs - Cause or effect? - Ignores people's experiences - Puts pressure on family
3 Behavioural Model of Abnormalty
3.1 Abnormality is based on the development or learning of behaviour patterns
3.2 Classical conditioning
3.3 Operant conditioning
3.4 Social learning theory
3.5 Evaluation
3.5.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • - Gives the patient the power to change - Patient is not seen as the victim of illness - Successful at treating some phobias - Easy to test experimentally
3.5.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • -The focus is on symptoms instead of underlying cause - Minimises the role of biological and cognitive factors - Treatments are accused of being unethical - Treatments are for the benefit of society rather than the individual - Classical conditioning doesn't explain why people develop phobias when they cannot identify an event in their past that has caused it
4 Psychodynamic Model of Abnormality
4.1 Conflict between id, ego and superego
4.2 Psychosexual development
4.2.1 Old Age Pensioners Like Greens
4.3 Freud
4.4 Evaluation
4.4.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • - It highlights psychology in mental illness - Identifies childhood experiences as a factor - Reduces blame from person, it can't be their fault if it is unconscious
4.4.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • -Over emphasis on past not present - Model is non scientific since it cannot be falsified -Ignores culture and social factors - Assumes behaviour is defined by gender and sex -False memory syndrome: recovering memories that are not true
5 Cognitive Model of Abnormality
5.1 Irrational thinking
5.2 Cognitive triad
5.3 ABC Model
5.4 Evaluation
5.4.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • -Model focusses on people's experiences and feelings - Gives the person the power to change
5.4.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • -Limited to certain mental disorders - Ignores other possible causes - Cause and effect - Ethics, is it right to tell someone their belief system is faulty? -Puts blame on the person
6 Behavioural Treatments
6.1 Systematic Desensitisaiton
6.1.1 The two responses of fear and relaxation are incompatible, therefore you can't be relaxed and still fearful.
6.2 Evaluation
6.2.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • -Quick and requires little effort from the patient - May be the only option for certain groups of people (learning difficulties) - Research has found that SD is successful in a range of anxiety disorders - SD has been found to be highly effective - McGrath et al: 75% of patients with phobias respond to SD - Capafons et al reported that when used with aerophobics, those who had undergone SD reported lower levels of fear compared to a control group
6.2.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • - Some patients experience 'Symptom Substitution' - SD may seem to resolve the problem, but suppressing symptoms may result in other symptoms presenting themselves -SD has been found to have reduced effectiveness for certain phobias - Ohman et al: SD may not be effective in treating some phobias related to evoluntary survival components (heights, dark, dangerous animals) - Ethical issues -May be psychologically distressing
7 Biological Treatments
7.1 Chemotherapy
7.2 Electro convulsive therapy (ECT)
7.3 Evaluation
7.3.1 Postives

Annotations:

  • - Supporters of ECT claim it can change lives and eradicate problems that other treatments have not - Comer: 60-70% of ECT patients imporved after their treatment
7.3.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • -Sham ECT appears to be effective at treating the conditions too -There are some serious side effects to ECT (phsycial: impaired memory, cardiovascular changes and headaches- Datto) (Psychological: The DOH report found that among those receiving ECT within the last 2 years, 30% reported that it had resulted in permanent fear and anxiety) - Counter evidence of Comer found that 84% relapsed within 6 months of ECT
8 Psychodynamic Treatments
8.1 Psychoanalysis
8.2 Evaluation
8.2.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • - Bergin: He analysed the sata from 10,000 patient histories and estimated 80% benefited from psychoanalysis compared to ecletic therapies - Tschuchke et al: More than 450 patiens were included in the study, he found that the longer the treatment, the better the outcomes. Supporting the prolonged time period for ppsychoanalysis
8.2.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • - The whole theory is based Freud's theory, what if it is wrong? - Eysenck argues that Freud's theory is countered by spontaneous remission and placebo treatment, that it is not useful to base therapies on it (some people suddenly recover without years of therapy. Others who spend the same amount of time talking to someone without any analysis going on recover seem to recover to the same levels) - It may lead to false memories - There are ethical issues, the therapy may bring up potentially distressing material which can affect the individual and the whole family
9 Cognitive Treatments
9.1 REBT
9.1.1 ABCDEF
9.2 Evaluation
9.2.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • - Engles conducted a meta analysis in 1993 and concluded that REBT is an effective treatment for a number of disorders including OCD and social phobia - It is useful in a variety of settings so anybody can benefit - There is evidence to suggest that the long term effects of REBT are more successful than drugs because they fix the cause - More cost effective and less time consuming than psychoanalysis - There are no side effects unlike drugs treament - Can be used in conjunction with other treatments like drug treatment and has been found to decrease the chances of relapse
9.2.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • - Even though the person has been helped to approach problems rationally, once they leave treatment they re-enter the original environments that caused the problem - Only works if the patient is willing - It is unethical to tell someone that their belief systems are faulty. Especially when these principles are linked to a fundamental religious faith - Evaluation is difficult as there is no object measure of improvement

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