Charlotte Summerly
Mind Map by Charlotte Summerly, updated more than 1 year ago
Charlotte Summerly
Created by Charlotte Summerly about 4 years ago


AS - Level Psychology (Paper 2) Mind Map on Biopsychology, created by Charlotte Summerly on 03/08/2016.

Resource summary

1 Nervous system
1.1 Central nervous system
1.1.1 Spinal cord - Relays information between brain and body, allows monitoring and contains nerve cells to allow simple reflexes
1.1.2 The brain Contains the cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum Cerebrum is split into 2 hemispheres which communicate through the corpus collosum Diencephalon contains hypothalamus and thalamus where the hypothalamus regulates body temp, hunger etc Brain stem regulates the autonomic functions such as breathing, heart beat and swallowing Cerebellum monitors motor skills, balance, co-ordination
1.2 Peripheral Nervous System (relays nerve impulses from CNS to the body and back)
1.2.1 Somatic Nervous System - Has 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. They both have sensory neurons and are involved in reflex actions
1.2.2 Autonomic Nervous System Contains the sympathetic branch (hypes up the body) and the parasympathetic brain (brings body back to normal) Sympathetic Branch - helps to deal with flight or fight and releases noradrenaline Parasympathetic Branch - relaxes the body and releases acetylcholine (rest and digest)
2 Neurons and Synaptic Transmission
2.1 Structure and function of neurons
2.1.1 They carry neural information and consist of a cell body, dendrites and an axon. Sensory Neurons carry impulses from sensory receptors TO the CNS Relay Neurons allow sensory and motor neurons to communicate Motor Neurons form synapses with muscles and control contractions
2.2 Synaptic Transmission
2.2.1 Is an electrical impulse (action potential) arrives at end of axon. Crosses synaptic gap and neurotransmitters are released. They bind to receptors and produce excititary or inhibitory effect.
2.2.2 Excitatory Neurotransmitters releases noradrenaline and is a positive charge.
2.2.3 Inhibitory Neurotransmitters releases serotonin and has a negative charge
3 The Endocrine System
3.1 A network of glands that manufacture and secrete chemical messengers known as hormones
3.1.1 Signals are sent from the hypothalamus to the piuitary gland in the form of a releasing hormone. This causes the pituitary gland to secrete a stimulating hormone into the bloodstream. Too many hormones or too little hormones at one time can result in dsyfunction of bodily systems
3.2 Adrenal glands
3.2.1 Adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys. It contains the adrenal cortex (outer part) and the adrenal medulla (inner part) Adrenal cortex produces cortisol which controls cardiovascular functions. Adrenal medulla releases adrenaline
3.3 Pituitary glands
3.3.1 Pituitary glands produce hormones whose primary function is to influence the release of hormones to other glands. It is the master gland and is controlled by the hypothalamus Anterior hormones release ACTH as a response to stress and posterior hormones releases oxytocin to help stimulate contractions in childbirth
4 Fight or flight response
4.1 Homeostasis is the tendency of an organism to maintain an internal equilibrium by adjusting physiological processes
4.2 Amydgala TO hypothalamus TO autonomic nervous system (sympathetic) TO adrenal medulla - HANSAM
4.2.1 Amydgala and Hypothalamus - brain area is mobilised and a distress signal is given to hypothalamus (acute and chronic stressors) Sympathetic Nervous System begins process of preparing body for fight or flight and sends a signal to the adrenal medulla which releases adrenaline and noradrenaline Adrenaline makes the heart beats faster, pushes blood to the muscles and triggers the release of glucose to supply energy Parasympathetic Nervous System dampens down the stress response and slows down processes
4.3 I; Gray argues that the first phase of a reaction to a threat is not to fight or flee but to avoid confrontation. J; He suggested that many animals show the 'freeze' response before making a response and that this response is essentially 'stop, look and listen'. E; This shows that fight or flight doesn't tell the whole story.
4.3.1 I; Research shows that there are some negative consequences of fight or flight. J; The problem arises when the stress response is repeatedly activated, as the blood pressure is induced from the SNS can damage blood vessels. E; This means that it is a problem for modern day life I; Taylor suggested females behaviour response to stress is more characterised by tend and befriend. J; Studies show there may be a physiological response as the release of oxytocin in women increases relaxation and makes them more nurturing. E; This shows there are some gender differences.
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