Approaches to Psychology

Charlotte Summerly
Mind Map by Charlotte Summerly, updated more than 1 year ago
Charlotte Summerly
Created by Charlotte Summerly about 4 years ago
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AS - Level Psychology (Paper 2) Mind Map on Approaches to Psychology, created by Charlotte Summerly on 03/09/2016.

Resource summary

Approaches to Psychology
1 Origins of Psychology
1.1 17th to 19th Century - psychology was seen as branch of philosophy
1.1.1 1879 - Wundt opened first psychology lab
1.1.1.1 1900s - Freud established psychodynamic approach
1.1.1.1.1 1913 - Watson and Skinner developed behavioural approach
1.1.1.1.1.1 1950s - Rogers and Maslow developed Humanistic approach
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1960s - Ellis and Beck likened human mind to a computer
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1960s - Bandura developed Social Learning Theory
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1980s - Biological approach gains dominance
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 21st Century - Cognitive neuroscience emerges
1.2 William Wundt and Introspection
1.2.1 He believed the human mind could be studied scientifically. First lab was opened in Germany. Aim was to study the structure of the human mind . Used the technique of introspection. Realised that high mental processes cannot be controlled strictly.
1.3 Emergence of Psychology as a science
1.3.1 By the beginning of the 20th century, the value of introspection was being questioned. He said that psychology should study things that could be observed and measured - psychology was born.
2 The Behaviourist Approach
2.1 Classical Conditioning
2.1.1 All animals are born with a number of natural reflexes such as salivation
2.1.1.1 Timing - if the NS cannot be used to predict the UCS then conditioning will not take place. Extinction - CR doesn't become permanently established
2.1.2 I; CC has led to development in treatment for phobias. J; Use of systematic desensitisation. E; Shows strengths behaviourist approach
2.1.2.1 I; Different species find it hard to understand CC. J; Animals are prepared to learn associations that link to survival needs. E; Shows limitations of behaviourist approach
2.2 Operant Conditioning
2.2.1 Skinners Research - developed special cage for rat and when food pellet arrived when pressing lever it acted as a reinforcer
2.2.1.1 Positive Reinforcement is when a consequence occurs that is pleasant for the organism. Negative reinforcement is when something unpleasant arrives.
2.2.1.1.1 I; He had a reliance on his experimental method. J; By manipulating consequences of behaviour he could measure effects on behaviour. E; Allowed him to establish cause and effect relationship
2.2.1.1.1.1 I; He used animals instead of humans. J; Reliance on animals meant that little information could be given on human behaviour. E; Shows limitations of operant conditioning
3 Social Learning Theory
3.1 Modelling - live model (peers, parents) or symbolic model (someone in media) shows behaviour
3.1.1 Imitation - copying the behaviour of the model
3.1.1.1 Identification - individual relates to the model and feels they are similar to them
3.1.1.1.1 Vicarious Reinforcement - observe the consequences that people have and think about experiencing it themselves
3.1.1.1.1.1 Mediational Processes - mental representations of the behaviour being shown and the consequences of that behaviour
3.2 Bandura - showed children aggressive and non aggressive behaviour towards a Bobo doll. Children then showed same behaviour modelled.
3.3 I; SLT does have useful applications. J; Higher probability of engaging in criminal behaviour when exposed to models. E; Main cause of violence is peer groups involved
3.3.1 I; Greater identification with a model as it is easier to visualise themselves in their place. J; Found evidence for computer generated models and that they are likely to engage in same activity as the model. E; Shows support for identification
3.3.1.1 I; Problem with complexity in SLT. J; Theories emphasise importance of gender specific modelling. E; However, in real life child is exposed to different influences
4 Cognitive Approach
4.1 Focuses on how people perceive, store and manipulate information e.g memory
4.2 The role of schemas - cognitive framework that helps organise and interpret info in the brain. Allows us to take shortcuts and fill in the gap.
4.2.1 Theorectical Models - simplified representations of mental processes e.g. MSM. Computer Models - using computer as representation for human mind
4.2.1.1 Emergence of cognitive neuroscience - now able to study the living brain using PET and MRI scans and mental processing
4.3 I; Has been applied to other areas of psychology. J; Can be used to explain how behaviour can be traced back to faulty thoughts. E; Led to treatments of depression and OCD
4.3.1 I; Psychologists emphasis on scientific methods. J; Provides them with a strict way to collect and evaluate evidence to make accurate conclusions. E; Means that conclusions are based on more than common sense and introspection
4.3.1.1 I; Uses computer models to explain human coding. J; However, computers don't make mistakes and humans can. E; Shows limitations regarding computer models.
5 Biological Approach
5.1 Influence of genes
5.1.1 Heredity- passing on characteristics from one generation to the next
5.1.1.1 Genotype - genetic makeup of an individual. Phenotype - observable characteristics
5.1.1.1.1 Identical twins can be used to test this through concordance rates
5.2 Nervous system carries messages from one area of brain to another using nerve cells.
5.3 Neurochemistry - travels across a junction called a synapse
5.3.1 Excitatory - stimulate the brain. Inhibitory - calm and balance the mood
5.4 Theory of Evolution
5.4.1 Natural Selection and the Survival of the Fittest. Characteristics are passed on to their offspring.
5.5 I; Uses a scientific method. J; Studies take place in highly controlled environments. E; Increases the validity
5.5.1 I; Provides clear predictions. J; Led to significant applications of real world - depression and successful treatments. E; There are applications of biological approach.
5.5.1.1 I; Complex human behaviour into smaller components. J; Many mental disorders are reductionist as genes imbalances could be main cause of this behaviour. E; Cannot fully understand as emotional factors are not accounted for.
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