Topic 4: Learning psychology

Maria Angela Samonte
Mind Map by Maria Angela Samonte, updated more than 1 year ago
Maria Angela Samonte
Created by Maria Angela Samonte about 4 years ago


Topic 4, Learning. Pavlov. Social learning theory

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Topic 4: Learning psychology
1.1 Shaping
1.1.1 waiting, actual bh before, rt
1.1.2 waiting, action, nearer to the desired bh
1.1.3 rewarding moves towards the desired bh
1.1.4 = using operant, in the form of rewards + punishments, a complex bh that wouldn't occur as a whole naturally so couldn't be reinforced itself. reinforcing small parts of the bh + gradually asking for more, before, reward
1.1.5 E.g. ad, squirrel, conquer an assault course. The whole course couldn't, achieved in 1 attempt. reward each part, course
2 Vaughan et al. (2014), calves: didn't continue to use 1 calf bc of its distress
3 Evaluation of operant + classical conditioning theories as explanations of human bh
3.1 Objective measures + careful controls. scientifically. some bh, isolated. E.g. Skinner, cage, varied, IV, differences introduced, clear, measured, DV carefully
3.2 Therapy, useful
3.3 E.g. cats, learn, out, puzzle box by trial + error. vs. problem-solving techniques + previous experience. not useful
3.4 lack validity. isolate bh, reducing such bh to a small part of normal activities. concepts aren't valid, apply just to small parts of overall bh
4 Social learning theory
4.1 alongside operant, observational learning = watch what others do + copy, thus learning new bhs
4.2 learning goes 2 ways. individual affecting the environ too, e.g. cognitive processes involved in whether someone learns or not
4.3 interacting = reciprocal determinism
4.3.1 not only does the environ. act on the individual to 'cause' learning, but also the individual acts on their environ. e.g. attending to a modelled bh, retaining it, reproducing it, motivated to reproduce it
4.4 steps in observational learning
4.4.1 1. bh, modelled by a role model. someone important to the individual
4.4.2 2. observer identifies w/ the role model. connection. link.
4.4.3 3. bh, observed + noted
4.4.4 4. bh, imitated. whether, repeated again, pattern, consequences
4.5 Modelling
4.5.1 a live model: someone is actually doing the bh
4.5.2 verbal instruction: talked through the bh
4.5.3 through symbols, e.g. TV, or actual symbols, e.g. rep. happiness through certain bhs or objects
4.6 imitation depends on
4.6.1 model
4.6.2 consequences, seen
4.6.3 Rt = motivational
4.6.4 identified w/ + involved, + showing the bh
4.6.5 element of thinking in learning's processes, not considered in classical or operant
4.7 cognitive processes in observational learning
4.7.1 observed, attended to, stored in M, rewarded, motivation to reproduce it
4.7.2 Bh, may not be exhibited until some time after the learning has occurred
4.8 4 stages, relate to cognitive processes
4.9 Vicarious learning
4.9.1 Vicarious extinction, stop, seen, not rewarded
4.9.2 Vicarious rt: ___________________ effect Modelling: seen + wouldn't have done otherwise Eliciting: does it a bit differently Disinhibiting: bh, done that someone wouldn't think OK but has seen it done w/o negative consequences + now thinks, OK Inhibitory: role model punished, don't do it
4.10 Models, more likely
4.10.1 similar, in the mind of the observer
4.10.2 perceived, important or prestigious
4.10.3 bh, observable
4.11 E
4.11.1 experimental evidence. Bandura. E.g. Mineka, observer monkeys, learn a fear of, snake + snake-like objects bc model monkeys show fear of snakes
4.11.2 therapy. E.g. OCD, operant conditioning principles + shaping. 1 piece, rewarded for not carrying out that bh. Someone the patient trusts, desired bh, see, consequences aren't unpleasant. keep touching an object w/o hand-washing
4.11.3 Bh might not be exhibited immediately, difficult, test for observational learning. Experiments, specific bhs, specific time, results, limited, lack of validity
5 Stimulus-substitution theory
5.1 = the UCR = same as the CR but appears in response to a different stimulus.
5.1.1 E.g. aunt, substituted for the flowers, sneeze
5.2 CR can be weaker, UCR
5.2.1 E.g. biological R to an electric shock = increased heart rate. Something, paired w/ the shock, R, CS, lowered heart rate. not what classical, predicts. CNS, can yield different Rs, expected
6 stimulus generalisation
6.1 = S similar, CS, CR
6.2 opp. discrimination (conditioning, focused in on a specific S)
6.2.1 using other bell tones w/o food. just food w/ the required bell tone
7 Pavlov's 1927 experiment
7.1 A = cerebral cortex works, survival
7.1.1 look at reflexes, pathways, brain
7.2 some higher-order thinking + manageable, tested
7.3 In Lecture II, artificiality of experiments, isolation from RL S. However, w/o this isolation of vs, study of the complexity of the cerebral cortex isn't possible. sacrifice validity for reliability, objectivity, + scientific credibility
7.4 P
7.4.1 special chamber can't hear footsteps outside, room experimenter's blinking, movements, sweating, not S
7.4.2 Lecture II, metronome, food
7.4.3 pairing, 20 times, but, variation, strength, CS
7.4.4 meat, mouth, check the salivation reflex
7.4.5 electric buzzer, 5-10 s after meat didn't appearing w/ meat once, before, did give salivation
7.5 R
7.5.1 metronome, started after 9s. By 45s, 11 drops, collected (Lecture II)
7.5.2 tested the reflex itself
7.5.3 after, didn't. before + paired once did.
7.5.4 alert + no other S present, distract or affect the acquired learning, conditioning
7.5.5 secondary conditioning = first CS (metronome), + NS (buzzer). Buzzer, CS, CR
7.6 C
7.6.1 signalisation links, metronome to food, R needed, survive (e.g. learned association between, metronome + meat) + natural inborn reflexive responses (e.g. salivation, meat)
7.6.2 same experiment, 2 dogs, opp. effects Conditioning, sensitive to many extraneous vs, + individual differences
7.6.3 As, no possibility of looking @ the cerebral cortex's functioning, there's a complexity, 'paths' that develop through conditioning that is hard to study
7.7 E
7.7.1 A = objective + scientifically credible results
7.7.2 Pavlov + his team repeated many experiments, continually found, CS, CR, buzzer, metronome, + other S
7.7.3 chamber + no other S present RL bh isn't being looked at, data aren't valid However, w/o this isolation of vs, study of the complexity of the cerebral cortex isn't possible. E.g. salivation is valid - it is salivation.
7.7.4 unable to measure brain activity directly, assume what was happening in the cerebral cortex, experiments felt, shown inbuilt pathways, UCS, UCR showed new associations, which could be new pathways, CS, CRs couldn't study the exact mechanisms as we can today, e.g. fMRI scanning
7.7.5 evolution led Pavlov, generalise, dogs, same processes. do have reflexes as dogs do different higher-order processing. But, classical, treatment of alcoholism, processes of classical, do apply
8 operant conditioning
8.1 voluntary bh
8.2 consequences, after R, whereas, classical, S, R
8.3 punishment doesn't help to achieve the desired bh; only stops undesired bh. only attention, rewarding, not, therapy, wanting, change bh
9 Contingency = bh + consequences, dependent on one another - clear link
10 Contiguity = timing between, bh + consequences, not too long, relate to one another
11 Continuous rt = when each bh gets the consequence, e.g. every peck when green light, reward, food pellet. not a schedule, always happens, every time, every peck
12 4 schedule of rt
12.1 fixed interval = regarding the time of the reward (or punishment) there's a fixed time. More bhs as the time for the reward increases
12.2 variable interval = regarding the time of the reward (or punishment), there's a variable time. bhs are steady, unknown when, consequences.
12.3 fixed ratio = regarding the no. of bhs, reward or punishment is at a set no.. High no. of responses up to the consequences being given, but, might, period, not many responses once, reward, given.
12.4 variable ratio = reward or punishment, given rather randomly w/ regard, no. of bhs. most efficient, unknown when, consequences, arrive. bh can, continuous
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