French Revolution brings terror and reform

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chapter 23 section 2 french revolution

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French Revolution brings terror and reform
  1. The revolutionary governments of France made reforms but also used terror and violence to retain power.
    1. After the storming of the Bastille, fear was felt by peasants, clergy, and nobles alike.
      1. The Old Regime had a large target on its back.
      2. The National Assembly Reforms France
        1. August 4, 1789
          1. National Assembly swept away privileges of First and Second Estates
            1. France was now “equal
              1. The Old Regime was essentially dead
              2. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
                1. (August 26th, 1789)
                  1. Promoted...
                    1. Liberty
                      1. Property
                        1. Security
                          1. Justice
                          2. Freedom of speech
                            1. Freedom of religion
                              1. Formed basis for slogan
                                1. Liberty
                                  1. Equality
                                    1. Fraternity
                                    2. A State-Controlled Church
                                      1. Church lands confiscated by the government
                                        1. Priests were now state officials
                                          1. Money used to pay off massive debts
                                            1. Catholic Church lost both land and influence
                                            2. Divisions Develop
                                              1. Factions Split France
                                                1. Outside Factions
                                                  1. France at War
                                                    1. The National Convention
                                                      1. A new government declared France a Republic
                                                        1. Adult male citizens were given the right to vote
                                                          1. Excluded women
                                                          2. Jacobins Take Control of The National Convention
                                                            1. A Famous Beheading
                                                              1. The Wars Continue
                                                                1. Robespierre Takes Over The Terror Grips France
                                                                  1. The Reign of Terror
                                                                    1. Famous Victims of the Guillotine
                                                                      1. Effects of the Reign of Terror
                                                                        1. National Convention drafted a new government called the Directory
                                                                          1. Made up of moderates
                                                                            1. Restored order
                                                                          2. Louis XVI
                                                                            1. Marie Antoinette
                                                                              1. Georges Danton
                                                                                1. Maximilian Robespierre
                                                                                2. Robespierre became a virtual dictator
                                                                                  1. Used his role on the Committee to execute thousands of supposed enemies
                                                                                    1. Included people of all political ideologies- Liberal or Conservative, Left, Right or Center
                                                                                  2. Maximilian Robespierre, a Jacobin seized power in France
                                                                                    1. Headed Committee of Public Safety
                                                                                      1. Wanted to wipe out France’s past
                                                                                        1. New calendar
                                                                                          1. Closed all churches
                                                                                        2. Great Britain, Holland, and Spain join Austria and Prussia
                                                                                          1. National Convention ordered a draft
                                                                                            1. The French Army grew to 800,000 men
                                                                                            2. Louis XVI tried for treason
                                                                                              1. Executed by guillotine on January 21, 1793
                                                                                              2. Marie Antoinette was executed on October 16th, 1793
                                                                                              3. Radical Political Organization
                                                                                                1. Leaders
                                                                                                  1. Jean-Paul Marat
                                                                                                    1. Edited a newspaper
                                                                                                    2. Georges Danton
                                                                                                      1. Lawyer known for his devotion to the poor
                                                                                              4. Declared war on Austria and Prussia due to interference within France
                                                                                                1. Royal family held as prisoners
                                                                                                  1. September Massacre
                                                                                                    1. Citizens killed nobles, priests, and royal sympathizers
                                                                                                  2. 1792
                                                                                                  3. Emigres
                                                                                                    1. Nobles who fled France
                                                                                                      1. Wanted the Old Regime to return
                                                                                                      2. Sans-culottes
                                                                                                        1. Peasant workers and shopkeepers
                                                                                                          1. Wanted even greater changes
                                                                                                        2. Many problems still existed
                                                                                                          1. Food shortages
                                                                                                          2. Divisions split into 3 general groups
                                                                                                            1. Left
                                                                                                              1. Radicals who wanted sweeping changes
                                                                                                              2. Center
                                                                                                                1. Centrists who wanted some government changes
                                                                                                                2. Right
                                                                                                                  1. Conservatives wanted few changes
                                                                                                              3. A new constitution set up a limited monarchy, similar to Great Britain
                                                                                                                1. Legislative Assembly
                                                                                                                  1. Could make laws
                                                                                                                    1. Declare war
                                                                                                                      1. However, the only way to get laws past was through factions in the Legislative Assembly
                                                                                                                        1. Faction
                                                                                                                          1. a small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one, esp. in politics
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