Photography

Haley J Klare
Mind Map by Haley J Klare, updated more than 1 year ago
Haley J Klare
Created by Haley J Klare about 4 years ago
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bubble map

Resource summary

Photography
1 History / Background
1.1 Inventors
1.1.1 Joham Heinrich Schulze (1725) discovered that chalk with silver nitrate and nitric acid would darken when exposed to light
1.1.1.1 Joseph Nicéphore Niècpe (1827) made a system called heliography. He coated a lithographic stone with a bituminous lacquer (dark tar like substance), placed it in a camera, and exposed it to images made by bright reflected sunlight for 8 hours. It made a fuzzy image.
1.1.1.1.1 Louis Daguerre (partnered with Necpe) made daguerreotypys. Daguerreotypes were made by coating a copper plate with silver iodide. The plate was then placed in a camera, exposed for about 30 min in bright light, and then developed, by exposing it to mercury vapor. The images were clear, and the process was cheap.
1.1.1.1.1.1 W.H.F Talbot developed the first system to use negatives to make positive copies . Talbot impregnated paper with silver salts. Exposure to light produced negative images on the paper, which he then washed with a solution that made positive prints in abundance.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In 1851, Frederick Scott Archer invented the wet-plate process. A glass plate was dipped into a solution of silver nitrate immediately before it was exposed in a camera. The exposure time was short, but the plate had to be developed immediately. Once developed, the plate could be used to make high-quality prints at low cost.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In the 1870s, Frederick Ives and Stephen Horgan developed the halftone process, which made it possible to transfer photographs directly to the printed page. Halftones made reproducing photographs easier and less expensive.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In 1874, George Eastman developed a method for placing emulsions of silver salts in gelatin on long strips on paper that could be rolled on a spool and stored for months.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 By 1888, Eastman was promting his Kodak camera. The first Kodak camera had to be returned for developement and reloading, but the camera was soon changed so that rolls of film could be removed and replaced easily by the owner.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In the 1950s, colored prints became popular.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Edwin H. Land's Polaroid camera, in which development of the film took place within the camerawas introduced in 1946. By 1963, Polaroid cameras that could produce colored prints were available.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In 1996, Eastman Kodak, Fuji, Nikon, Canon, and Minolta, introduced the Advanced Photo System.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Today much of the population uses Digital Photography. In Digital Photography, the camera process images as digital files and shows them on built in mini disc drive.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Chemists at the University of Osaka in Japan have developed polyalnilin, a polymer in which images can be made and erased, but it is under testing.
1.2 In the 16th century an italian artist created the camera obscura. With a tiny pinhole on one side through which light can enter. When light passes through the pinhole, it creates an image of the scene outside on a paper in the camera obscura
1.2.1 A century later, lens was used instead of the pinhole. The images formed by a camera obscura could not be moved and were not permanent. The images faded with darkness.
2 Impacts on Society
2.1 General Effects
2.1.1 Photographs enable humans to tie together and remember moments in their lives. They can also be used to communicate. Photography became ways to capture natural events, wars, exploration and colonizationto everyday life.
2.2 Economic
2.2.1 More people tried to make further improvements to the camera, so there became more jobs. Poeple also used cameras, so there became an industry for them.
2.3 Political
2.3.1 It was used to capture important events and wars.
2.4 Social
2.4.1 More people took pictures of their important events. They also took pictures instead of portriats.
3 Essential Questions
3.1 How could future improvements to photography impact our society?
3.2 How did the silver impact the quality of taking pictures?
3.3 Did the silver make cameras more expensive?
4 Details
4.1 Joseph Nicéphore Niècpe (1827) made a system called heliography. He coated a lithographic stone with a bituminous lacquer (dark tar like substance), placed it in a camera, and exposed it to images made by bright reflected sunlight for 8 hours. It made a fuzzy image.
4.1.1 Location- Saint-Loup-de-Varennes, France
4.1.1.1 Year- 1827
4.1.1.1.1 Name of Photograph- View From the Window at Le Gras
4.1.1.1.1.1 The picture was taken from the window of his country house. It shows a courtyard.
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