Hormonal Reg of Fuel Metabolism

hardinbc
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Biochemistry Mind Map on Hormonal Reg of Fuel Metabolism, created by hardinbc on 01/21/2014.

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hardinbc
Created by hardinbc over 5 years ago
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Hormonal Reg of Fuel Metabolism

Annotations:

  • Insulin and glucagon/epinephrine are the major hormones regulating metabolic changes between fasting and the fed state.
  • Glucagon and epinephrine activate PKA and thus promote enzyme phosphorylation.
  • Insulin activates protein phosphatases which reverse the effects of glucagon.
  • Some enzymes are activated by phosphorylation, while others are inactive when phosphorylated.
  • insulin and glucagon/epinephrine activate signal transduction cascades which have opposite effects on key metabolic enzymes.
1 Insulin

Annotations:

  • Insulin is peptide hormone with chains A and B linked by disulfide bonds
  • Production of mature insulin: synthesis, cleavage in RER lumen, transport proinsulin to Golgi and storage vesicles cleavage --> insulin + C-peptie coprecipitation with Zn++ in storage vesicles
  • Insulin promotes glucose storage as glycogen and conversion of glucose to fat.
1.1 B- cells of pancreas
1.1.1 High [blood glucose]
1.1.1.1 Secrete Insulin
1.2 Action
1.2.1 Stimulates
1.2.1.1 Glucose
1.2.1.1.1 Uptake
1.2.1.1.1.1 From blood
1.2.1.1.1.2 In muscle cells
1.2.1.1.1.2.1 + GLUT-4
1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 Major glucose transporter
1.2.1.1.1.3 In brain cells
1.2.1.1.1.3.1 Insulin independent
1.2.1.1.2 Utilization
1.2.1.1.2.1 In Liver

Annotations:

  • Insulin stimulates the utilization of glucose in the liver, but not glucose uptake
1.2.1.1.3 Storage
1.2.1.2 Fat
1.2.1.2.1 Synthesis
1.2.1.2.2 Storage
1.2.1.3 Protein
1.2.1.3.1 Synthesis
1.2.2 Inhibits
1.2.2.1 Glycogen
1.2.2.1.1 Breakdown
1.2.2.2 Fat
1.2.2.2.1 Mobilization
1.3 Response
1.3.1 Biphasic
1.3.1.1 Initial
1.3.1.1.1 Release from vesicles
1.3.1.2 Sustained
1.3.1.2.1 De novo synthesis
1.3.2 [Blood glucose] increase

Annotations:

  • For increases in plasma glucose concentrations up to 300 mg/dL, the normal increase in insulin release is proportional to the glucose level
  • Sugars stimulate a more rapid increase in blood sugar than complex carbs Fiber decreases glycemic index of foods (area under 2 hr glucose curve after feeding 50 g CHO portion)
1.3.2.1 2-3x normal range
1.4 Reverse PKA Effects
1.4.1 + protein serine/threonine phosphatase
1.4.1.1 Reverses phosphorylation from PKA
1.4.1.2 Inhibits mobilization of glucose from glycogen
1.4.1.3 + glycogen synthase
2 Glucagon

Annotations:

  • 29 AA polypeptide hormone released by a-cells of pancreas Initial synthesis of proglucagon Plasma glucagon has half-life of 3-5 mins
2.1 Fasted State
2.1.1 Liver
2.1.1.1 Releases glucose
2.1.1.1.1 Maintains plasma levels
2.1.1.1.2 Mobilizes glycogen
2.1.1.2 Gluconeogenesis
2.1.1.2.1 AAs
2.1.1.2.1.1 Muscle Catabolism
2.1.2 Major Energy Source
2.1.2.1 Fatty Acids
2.1.2.1.1 TAGs
2.2 Secretion
2.2.1 Stimulated
2.2.1.1 Epinephrine
2.2.1.2 Cortisol
2.2.1.3 Exhaustive Exercise
2.2.1.4 Amino Acids

Annotations:

  • in normal, "mixed" meals, amino acids, especially lysine and arginine, increase (or potentiate) the insulin response to glucose.
2.2.1.4.1 Protein meal, no CHO
2.2.2 Inhibited
2.2.2.1 High [plasma glucose]
2.2.2.2 Insulin
2.3 Action
2.3.1 Targets
2.3.1.1 Liver
2.3.1.2 Adipocytes
2.3.1.3 NOT muscle
2.3.2 Stimulates
2.3.2.1 Glycogen breakdown
2.3.2.2 Gluconeogenesis
2.3.2.3 Glucose release
2.3.2.4 TAG hydrolysis
2.3.2.5 FA release
2.3.3 Inhibits
2.3.3.1 Glycogen synthesis
2.3.3.2 Fat storage
2.3.4 Increase cAMP
2.3.4.1 Activate PKA
2.3.4.1.1
3 Epinephrine
3.1 Synthesis
3.1.1 Response to stress
3.1.1.1 Adrenal Medulla
3.2 Action
3.2.1 Glycogen Mobilization
3.2.1.1 Liver
3.2.1.1.1 Blood Glucose
3.2.1.2 Muscle
3.2.1.2.1 glucose-P
3.2.1.2.1.1 ATP generation
3.2.2 Increase cAMP
3.2.2.1 Activate PKA
3.2.2.1.1
3.2.2.1.2 + phosphorylase kinase
3.2.2.1.2.1 + phosphorylase
3.2.2.1.2.1.1 Release glucose -P from glycogen
3.2.2.1.3 + lipase
3.2.2.1.3.1 Hydrolysis of stored fat
3.2.2.1.4 - glycogen synthase

Annotations:

  • First step in FA synthesis
3.2.2.1.4.1 inhibits glycogen synthesis
3.2.2.1.5 Insulin reverses effects
4 Glucocorticoids
4.1 Action
4.1.1 Stimulate fuel mobilization
4.1.1.1 Regulate gene transcription
4.1.1.2 Glycogen synthesis

Annotations:

  • Cortisol stimulates glycogen synthesis, then glucagon and epinephrine stimulate glycogen mobilization
4.1.2 Bind intracellular receptors
4.1.3 Mediate changes over long periods
4.1.3.1 Starvation
4.1.3.2 Sepsis
4.1.3.3 Stress

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