coding capacity & duration of memory

Daisy  U
Mind Map by Daisy U, updated more than 1 year ago
Daisy  U
Created by Daisy U about 4 years ago
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AS - Level psychology (chapter 2 - memory ) Mind Map on coding capacity & duration of memory, created by Daisy U on 03/28/2016.

Resource summary

coding capacity & duration of memory
1 research on coding
1.1 stored in different formats
1.1.1 converting info from one format to another = coding
1.2 Baddeley
1.2.1 different lists of words for people to remember
1.2.1.1 acoustically similar
1.2.1.1.1 cat
1.2.1.1.2 cab
1.2.1.1.3 can
1.2.1.2 acoustically different
1.2.1.2.1 pit
1.2.1.2.2 few
1.2.1.3 semantically similar
1.2.1.3.1 great
1.2.1.3.2 big
1.2.1.3.3 large
1.2.1.4 semantically different
1.2.1.4.1 good
1.2.1.4.2 huge
1.2.1.4.3 hot
1.2.2 shown the words had to say them in the right order
1.2.2.1 immediately after = stm
1.2.2.1.1 worse with acoustically similar
1.2.2.2 after 20 minutes = ltm
1.2.2.2.1 worse in semantically similar
2 research on capacity
2.1 digit span
2.1.1 how much can stm hold
2.1.1.1 Jacobs
2.1.1.1.1 4 digits recall in order
2.1.1.1.1.1 if correct move to 5 digits etc..
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 mean = 9.3 items
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 mean for letters = 7.3
2.2 span of memory & chunking
2.2.1 Miller
2.2.1.1 things come in sevens
2.2.1.1.1 7 notes in a scale
2.2.1.1.2 7 days in a week
2.2.1.1.3 7 deadly sins
2.2.1.2 span of stm = 7 + - 2
2.2.1.3 people can remember 5 words as well as letters
2.2.1.3.1 they do this by chunking
2.2.1.3.1.1 grouping digits or letters together
3 research on duration
3.1 duration of stm
3.1.1 Peterson
3.1.1.1 24 undergraduate students
3.1.1.1.1 8 trials
3.1.1.1.1.1 each trial = consonant syllable e.g. YCG and a 3 digit number to remember
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 then count backwards from that number until told to stop
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 prevent mental rehearsal of letters
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 told to stop after 3 6 9 12 15 or 18 seconds (retention interval)
3.1.1.2 results
3.1.1.2.1 stm very short duration unless rehearsed
3.2 duration of ltm
3.2.1 Bahrick
3.2.1.1 392 American participants 17 - 74
3.2.1.1.1 2 conditions
3.2.1.1.1.1 photo recognition - 50 photos from yearbook
3.2.1.1.1.2 free recall - name as many people as they could remember
3.2.1.2 results
3.2.1.2.1 under 15 years of graduation
3.2.1.2.1.1 90% accurate photo recognition
3.2.1.2.1.2 60% free recall
3.2.1.2.2 after 48 years
3.2.1.2.2.1 70% photo recognition
3.2.1.2.2.2 30% free recall
3.2.1.2.3 ltm lasts for a long time
4 evaluation - coding
4.1 artificial stimuli
4.1.1 word list - no personal meaning
4.1.1.1 can we really generalise it
5 evaluation - capacity
5.1 lacking validity
5.1.1 long time ago
5.1.1.1 not much control of variables
5.1.1.1.1 participants may have been distracted
5.1.1.1.2 however there has been research to support it
5.2 not so many chunks
5.2.1 Miller overestimated the capacity of stm
5.2.1.1 Cowan reviewed other research
5.2.1.1.1 found capacity about 4 chunks
6 evaluation - duration
6.1 meaningless stimuli - Peterson
6.1.1 stimulus artificial
6.1.1.1 doesn't reflect real life
6.1.1.1.1 lacked external validity
6.1.1.1.1.1 however some things like phone numbers may be meaningless
6.2 higher external validity - Bahrick
6.2.1 real life meaningful memories
6.2.1.1 confounding variables...
6.2.1.1.1 the people had probably checked their yearbook since graduation
7 evaluation +
7.1 criticising Peterson
7.1.1 one reason why we forget things in stm is memory trace
7.1.1.1 it disappears if not rehearsed
7.1.1.1.1 Peterson = participants counted down - displaced other info
7.1.2 or the info is displaced
7.1.2.1 limited capacity and new info will push old out
7.1.2.1.1
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