coding capacity & duration of memory

Daisy  U
Mind Map by Daisy U, updated more than 1 year ago
Daisy  U
Created by Daisy U about 4 years ago


AS - Level psychology (chapter 2 - memory ) Mind Map on coding capacity & duration of memory, created by Daisy U on 03/28/2016.

Resource summary

coding capacity & duration of memory
1 research on coding
1.1 stored in different formats
1.1.1 converting info from one format to another = coding
1.2 Baddeley
1.2.1 different lists of words for people to remember acoustically similar cat cab can acoustically different pit few semantically similar great big large semantically different good huge hot
1.2.2 shown the words had to say them in the right order immediately after = stm worse with acoustically similar after 20 minutes = ltm worse in semantically similar
2 research on capacity
2.1 digit span
2.1.1 how much can stm hold Jacobs 4 digits recall in order if correct move to 5 digits etc.. mean = 9.3 items mean for letters = 7.3
2.2 span of memory & chunking
2.2.1 Miller things come in sevens 7 notes in a scale 7 days in a week 7 deadly sins span of stm = 7 + - 2 people can remember 5 words as well as letters they do this by chunking grouping digits or letters together
3 research on duration
3.1 duration of stm
3.1.1 Peterson 24 undergraduate students 8 trials each trial = consonant syllable e.g. YCG and a 3 digit number to remember then count backwards from that number until told to stop prevent mental rehearsal of letters told to stop after 3 6 9 12 15 or 18 seconds (retention interval) results stm very short duration unless rehearsed
3.2 duration of ltm
3.2.1 Bahrick 392 American participants 17 - 74 2 conditions photo recognition - 50 photos from yearbook free recall - name as many people as they could remember results under 15 years of graduation 90% accurate photo recognition 60% free recall after 48 years 70% photo recognition 30% free recall ltm lasts for a long time
4 evaluation - coding
4.1 artificial stimuli
4.1.1 word list - no personal meaning can we really generalise it
5 evaluation - capacity
5.1 lacking validity
5.1.1 long time ago not much control of variables participants may have been distracted however there has been research to support it
5.2 not so many chunks
5.2.1 Miller overestimated the capacity of stm Cowan reviewed other research found capacity about 4 chunks
6 evaluation - duration
6.1 meaningless stimuli - Peterson
6.1.1 stimulus artificial doesn't reflect real life lacked external validity however some things like phone numbers may be meaningless
6.2 higher external validity - Bahrick
6.2.1 real life meaningful memories confounding variables... the people had probably checked their yearbook since graduation
7 evaluation +
7.1 criticising Peterson
7.1.1 one reason why we forget things in stm is memory trace it disappears if not rehearsed Peterson = participants counted down - displaced other info
7.1.2 or the info is displaced limited capacity and new info will push old out
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