biological molecules

Max Majurey
Mind Map by Max Majurey, updated more than 1 year ago
Max Majurey
Created by Max Majurey over 5 years ago
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biological molecules
  1. lipids

    Annotations:

    • not a polymer
    1. wat it's made of

      Annotations:

      • carbon+hydrogen+oxygen(but lower proportion of oxygen than carbohydrates)  made of complex molecules called fatty acids and glycerol
      1. structure of lipids
      2. fats vs oils

        Annotations:

        • pink=fats only yellow=oils only green=fats and oils
        1. solid at room temp
          1. come from animals
            1. examples include...

              Annotations:

              • meat,butter,cheese and eggs
              1. both types of lipids
                1. both have less oxygen than carbohydrates in them
                  1. liquid at room temp
                    1. come from plants
                      1. examples include...

                        Annotations:

                        • olive oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil
                      2. test for lipids

                        Annotations:

                        • put small quantity of substance that is to be tested in a test tube (mashed). then add an equal amount of ethanol and shake well.finally pour mix on top of a test tube filled with water. if there is a milky lager floating on the water, lipids are present
                        1. uses

                          Annotations:

                          • long term storage for energy, insulation and protective layers for organs
                        2. protein
                          1. what it's made of

                            Annotations:

                            • carbon+hydrogen+oxygen+nitrogen+sulfur(sometimes) made of complex molecules called amino acids. 
                            1. amino acids
                              1. manufacturable amino acids

                                Annotations:

                                • amino acids that can be manufactured by the body. there is around 10 of them
                                1. essential amino acids

                                  Annotations:

                                  • an essential amino acid is an amino acid that can't be manufactured by the body and must be taken in by the diet. there is around 10 of them.
                                2. structure of protein
                                3. uses

                                  Annotations:

                                  • proteins can do different things it all depends on the order of the amino acids and what amino acids that particular one has
                                  1. test for protein

                                    Annotations:

                                    • put a small quantity of substance that is to be tested (mashed) into a test tube. add some water if the food is quite solid and finally add a similar quantity (as the food) of BIURET REAGENT. shake. if it turns lilac from blue protein is present
                                    1. enzymes
                                      1. what are they

                                        Annotations:

                                        • biological catalysts and so do not change and are not used up after the reaction
                                        1. uses

                                          Annotations:

                                          • speed up METABOLIC reactions, specific to each reaction
                                          1. how they work

                                            Annotations:

                                            • the substrates bond onto the active site of the enzyme. this decreases the energy needed for the reaction to take place as the substrates are in the perfect position to bond.
                                            1. factors affecting enzyme activity
                                              1. PH

                                                Annotations:

                                                • not all enzymes have the same optimum PH affects enzyme by changing its structure this means at optimum PH the enzymes active site is the perfect shape for the substrates. however when the PH is too high or too low the active site deforms and could even DENATURE
                                                1. temp.

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • optimum temp for human enzymes is 37 degrees c when the temp. gets too hot for an enzyme the substrates and enzymes could collide and so can deform or DENATURE the active site. while if the temp. is to low the substrate and enzymes slow down and so don't come into contact/ react as much
                                                  1. denaturing

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • when an enzyme is kept at extreme temps. or PH's it is destroyed also known as being denatured.
                                                  2. examples

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • pepsin and trypsin and peptidase are all protease's amylase (salivary and pancreatic) and maltase are all carbohyrase's lipase is a enzyme that breaks down lipids
                                                    1. experiment to show how fast starch is used up by the enzyme amylase
                                                  3. carbohydrates

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • a polymer
                                                    1. what it's made of

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • carbon+hydrogen+oxygen
                                                      1. sugars
                                                        1. examples
                                                          1. glucose

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • most common sugar
                                                            1. structure of glucose
                                                            2. fructose
                                                              1. lactose
                                                              2. test for sugar

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • put small quantity of substance (mashed up with water) that is to be tested in to a test tube and add around the same amount of BENEDICTS REAGENT and heat/ boil for 3 minutes. if turns brick red from blue sugar is present
                                                              3. starch

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • only found in plant tissue
                                                                1. what is it

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • a long chain of glucose monomers, a polymer
                                                                  1. structure of starch
                                                                  2. test for starch

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • ad a few drops of iodine solution to the solution that is to be tested. if it turns blue-black from light brown starch is present
                                                                  3. cellulose
                                                                    1. found in fibre and can't be digested

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • important part of our diet as it can't be digested so pushes all the other foods through our system
                                                                      1. what is it

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • another polymer of glucose
                                                                      2. uses

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • stores energy
                                                                      3. polymers and monomers
                                                                        1. polymer

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • a substance which has a molecular structure built up chiefly or completely from a large number of similar units bonded together in a string
                                                                          1. monomer

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.
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