3.4 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Bee Brittain
Mind Map by Bee Brittain, updated more than 1 year ago
Bee Brittain
Created by Bee Brittain about 4 years ago


AS - Level Biology (3 - Cell Structure) Mind Map on 3.4 Eukaryotic Cell Structure, created by Bee Brittain on 03/31/2016.

Resource summary

3.4 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
1 Animal Cells
2 Plant Cells
3 Nucleus
3.1 Surrounded by nuclear envelope
3.1.1 contains nuclear pores Allows substances (e.g RNA) to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm
3.2 contains chromosomes
3.3 contains nucleolus
3.3.1 Makes ribosomes
3.4 Controls the cells activities
4 Mitochondrion
4.1 Double membrane
4.1.1 Inner layer folded to form cristae.
4.2 Inside is the matrix
4.3 Site of Aerobic respiration where ATP is produced
5 Chloroplast
5.1 Found in plant cells
5.2 Surrounded by a double membrane
5.3 Has membranes inside called thylakoid membranes
5.3.1 Stacked up to form grana Grana connected by lamellae - think, flat pieces of thlakoid membrane Large S.A for attachment of chlorophyll, electron carriers and enzymes that carry out the 1st stage of photosynthesis (light absorption).
5.3.2 Contain a photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll
5.4 Site where photosynthesis takes place
5.5 Stroma (a fluid-filled matrix found in chloroplasts)
5.5.1 contains the enzymes needed for 2nd stage of photosynthesis - synthesis of sugars
6 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)


  • Cells that manufacture and store large quantities of Carbs, proteins and lipids have a very expensive ER. Such cells include liver and secretory cell, for example the epithelial cells that line the intestine. :)
6.1 Rough ER (RER)
6.1.1 A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. The surface is covered with ribosomes Provides a large surface area for the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins Provide a pathway for the transport of materials, especially proteins, throughout the cell
6.2 Smooth ER (SER)
6.2.1 Similar to the RER but with no ribosomes Synthesis, store and transport Lipids and carbohydates
7 Golgi Apparatus
7.1 Consists of a stack of membranes that make up flattened sacs, or CISTERNAE.
7.2 Closely in contact with VESICLES. Small rounded hollow structures.
7.3 Add Carbohydrate to proteins to form glycoproteins
7.4 Produces secretory enzymes, such as those secreted by the pancreas
7.5 Secretes carbohydrates such as cellulose
7.6 Transports, modifies and stores lipids
7.7 Forms lysosomes
8 Lysosomes
8.1 Formed when the vesicles produced by the golgi apparatus contain enzymes such as proteases and lipases
8.2 A round organelles, surrounded by a membrane with no clear internal structure
8.3 Its basically a type of Golgi vesicle that releases lysozymes
8.4 Hydrolyse material ingested by phagocytic cells such as white blood cells and bacteria
8.5 Contains digestive enzymes called lysozymes
8.6 Release enzymes outside of cell in order to destroy material outside of the cell
8.7 Completely break down cells after they have died (autolysis)
8.8 Abundant in phagocytic cells and epithelial cells
9 Ribosomes
9.1 Small cytoplasmic granules found in all cells
9.2 They can float freely in the cytoplasm, or are attached to the Rough ER
9.3 2 types depending on where they are found: 80S - found in eukaryotic cells, around 25nm in diametre and 70S - found in prokryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts, these are slightly smaller
9.4 Site of Protein Synthesis
10 Cell Wall
10.1 A ridgid structure that surrounds cells in plants, algae and fungi
10.2 Consists of microfibrils of th epolysaccharide cellulose, embedded in a matrix
10.3 Thin layer called the middle lamella which marks the boundary between adjacent cell walls and cements adjacent cells togeher
10.4 Provides mechanical strength in order to prevent cell lysis
10.5 Give mechanical strength to the plant as a whole
10.6 Allow water to pass along it and so contribute to the movement of water through the plant
11 Vacuoles
11.1 A fluid-filled sac bounded by a single membrane
11.1.1 Single membrane called the TONOPLAST
11.2 A plant vacuole contains a solution of mineral salts, sugars, amino acids, wastes and sometimes pigments
11.3 Support herbaceous plants by making cells turgid
11.4 The sugars and amino acids may act as a temporary food store
11.5 The pigments may colour petals to attract pollinating insects
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