CHAPTER 8 The Anglo-Irish Settlement

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CHAPTER 8 The Anglo-Irish Settlement

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CHAPTER 8 The Anglo-Irish Settlement
1.1 Supported by both Ulster Unionists and the INP
1.1.1 In response a Home Rule Act was to be enacted for the end of the year
1.2 Irish economy prospered and 150,000 Irish men were in active service
1.2.1 But the legnth of the war and British govs insesitivity (Ulster volunteer force but not Irish Volunteers had a special division) Result: REVOLUTIONARY NATIONALISM
2 The Easter Rebellion 1916
2.1 Irish Nationalists - Fundementally the Fenians - had been opposed war and tried to prevent recruitment
2.1.1 1914 the volunteer movement split - those loyal to Redmond (& war) formed 'National Volunteers' Others under Eoin MacNeill formed the 'Irish Volunteers' Despite MacNeill's rejection of a premature uprising a small group of fellow commanders(Clarke, PEARCE, CONNOLLY) planned an uprising for Easter Pearce was looking for a "glorious revolution" whereas Connolly believed that rebellion could be successful if there was support from the Irish masses Arms were obtained from Casement from Germany. The plans were very secret - it was to be carried out under the guise of field manuevres On Easter monday they seized Dublin and declared Ireland a Republic, establishing a provinical government with Pearce as the head Result: Revolutionary Nationalism influenced by Cultural Nationalism Aims: IRISH REPUBLIC
2.2 Reasons for failure
2.2.1 #1 Rebellion was confined to Dublin, where there was little support anyway
2.2.2 #2 The Provincial units (under instruction from MacNeill) did not join in the uprising
2.2.3 #3 They recieved no outside help, a German Arms ship was intercepted and Casement was arrested
2.2.4 #4 The rebels were outnumbered by soliders and armed police
2.3 Aftermath
2.3.1 Pearce surrendered unconditionally; leaving 450 rebels and civillians killed and 2000 injured,
2.3.2 It was not a 'national rising' as a minority of a minority group, it was condemned by the Catholic Church, Redmond and moderate Nationalists
2.3.3 British Government Response Asquieth handed over problem to army -> Marital Law proclaimed and draconian policy of wholesale arrests made Improsionment and Internment followed by executions - 15 were executed, including Connolly and Casement Eamon De Valera had death sentence commuted to imprisonment
2.3.4 The harsness of the British response revitalised Irish Nationalsim Rebels given 'moral credence' - Anti war and Anti British sentiments hardened
2.3.5 Under pressure from Ireland and America Lloyd George negotiated a Home Rule solution Exclusion of 6 Protestent counties in Ulster (Redmond led to belive that exclusion was temporary but Carson beleived it to be permenant) Redmond's career distroyed as well as his party thus Constitutional Nationalism effectively dies Sinn Fein's absence came to occupy the dominant force of irish Nationalism formally held by the IPP
3 Sinn Fein
3.1 Founded by Arthur Griffith as a militant but non-violent organisation became commited to Irish Republic
3.1.1 Gained Influence after the Easter Rising because of the creation of martyrs, spread of revolutionary ideas and Unionist veto on Home Rule
3.2 Won two by-election seats usually Redmondite
3.2.1 Under pressure from America England released prisioners which provided new revolutionary recruits for Sinn Fein Llyod George called an Irish Convention in July 1917 to create and Irish Settlement but his real focus was on winning the war Went on till May 1918 but was afailure as Sinn Fein boycotted the convention and the Ulster Unionists remained firm The IPP failed and popularity declined
3.3 In July 1917 de Valera is elected MP for East Clare whcih extended and strengthened support and organsiation
3.3.1 In October 1917 de Valera was elected President and Head of the Irish volunteers This combined the leadership of both the political and militant wings of the Irish Revolutionary movement
3.4 Conscription Crisis
3.4.1 As a result of the heavy casualties in WWI Britain contemplated introducing Irish conscription. The Act was pushed through despite warnings Dillion (leader of IPP) walked out of Westminster and went to Dublin, where they formed an alliance with Sinn Fein Together they organsied a nationwide campaign against conscription - one day strike and support from Catholic Church Government gave way but the damage had already been done to the Union
3.5 1918 General Election
3.5.1 Radicalisation of opinion in Southern Ireland helped the Republican cause
3.5.2 in April 1918 Grifith returned to East Cavan by an overwhelming majority Authorities responded by arresting Republican leaders (with the excuse of their involvment in a 'German plot' This antagonised public opinion and helped Sinn Fein demonstrated in the general election in December 1918 Sinn Fein virtually destroyed the IPP - Sinn Fein (73 seats), IPP (6 seats), Unionists (26 seats)
3.6 The Dail Eireann
3.6.1 As a result of the 1918 election Sinn Fein could claim the will of the Irish people Their MPs did not take their seats in Westminster Instead they returned to Sublin on 21st January 1919 to consttute themeselves as the parliament of the Irish Republic The Dail issued a declaration of Independence, demanding English withdrawal from Ireland and a provincial government was set up under de Valera British government released prisoners but the Dail has already established its own courts and collected taxes The Dail was backed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) - formally the Irish volunteers - under Michael Collins Michael Collins organised an intelligence system and held domestic posts in the Irish provincial government Deadlock British govenment demanded allegiance based on mandate and established treaty rights Irish Provincial goverment rested on the mood of Irish people in establishing a nationhood In 1919 two policemen were killed by the IRA in County Tipperary. This was seen as the opening shots of war for Irish independence. Meanwhile the British government was working on a new constituional initiative
4 The Anglo-Irish Treaty
4.1 It became clar that neither side would win the war - IRA were short of men and materials. England not prepared for an war with Catholic Ireland
4.1.1 Lloyd George aware of the unpopularity of war in Ireland, espicially towards the methods persued by the Black-and-Tans Also understood that the IRA and Sinn Feins were a formidable group whos demands for independence were backed up by the majority of Irish people
4.2 In 1920 Lloyd George ateempted to bring peace but early moves failed - this was however a phychological victory for Sinn Fein
4.2.1 Partition had cleared the way for the treaty - following Sinn Fein's refusual to attend parliament noone was governing Southern Ireland King George V appealled to Irish peace - de Valera and Collins faced peace more as a result of the hard military facts The republican leaders also acknowledged that Lloyd George was considering 'dominion status' which for a British priminister was good Truce agreed on 11th July 1921
4.3 Th treaty discussion was legnthy and comlicated. 'Dominion Satus' meant full control of domestic affairs, membership of British Empire and alliegence
4.3.1 Hardline Republican's of the Dail Eireann did not want the oath of alliegence but de Valera was willing to comprimise and sent a delegation to London
4.4 The Irish Delegation led by Griffith and Collins, de Valera remained in Dublin causing confusion and tension amognst leaders
4.4.1 On the one hand the delegates were plenipotentiaries and on the other they had to submit draft treaties to de Valera This played into the hands of the experienced British side - Lloyd George, Churchill, Austin Chamberlin and Birkenhead
4.4.2 Three main discussions taking place #1 British security and defence (settled easily, three naval bases in Ireland was agreed) #2 Ulster (Irish leaders did not want partition but they weren't prepared to challenge the new state - N. Ireland given right to opt out of treaty) Lloyd George persuaded the Irish delegates to accept the idea of a Boundry Commission (pure bluff) #3 The powers of the new state (argument was symbolic as opposed to political, agreed to 'Dominion status' but oath of alliegence was watered down) Lloyd George gives the Republicans an ultimatum - unless Sinn Fein representatives accepted the treaty there would be war in three days (Mon 5th Dec) Fearful of the consequences of rejection the delegates signed the treaty on 6th December 1921. Lloyd George was probably bluffing
4.5 Results of the Treaty
4.5.1 In Britain the treaty was popular and it passed through parliament comfortably
4.5.2 In Ireland it brought not unity but dicord and conflict. Irish cabinant was divided on whether to accept. Collins belived these were the best terms. De Valera opposed it and resigned as President, replaced by Griffith The Dail accepted it narrowly - 64 votes to 57 on 7th Jan 1922
4.5.3 The terms of the Treaty were carried out immediately - provincial gov handed over to Collins, British Army withdraws handing over to IRA
4.5.4 Elections in June 1922 gave Collins and the pro-treaty group a convincing majority Despite this the anti-treaty faction continued the 'troubles' which were bloodier than the Anglo-Irish war Violence spread to N Ireland and some Conservatives regretted accepting the treaty however in the Spring of 1923 the rebels accepted the new regime
4.6 The Constitution for the Irish Free State
4.6.1 By the end of 1922 the Irish government (headed by William Cosgrove following deaths of Griffiths and Collins) promulgated a formal Constituion Appouved by Dail and British government. N Irleand exercised its right to opt out Irish free state and N Ireland established
4.7 Assessment of the Treaty
4.7.1 Flaws and Ambiguities The constitutional settlement was the product of no definite plan It rested on no clear cut principles It did not conform to the origional ideals of any of the participants
4.7.2 However it ended the Anglo-Irish War and inaugurated Ireland giving them some peace and stablity There was a greater degree of liberty than envisioned by O'Connell, Parnell or Redmond and offered the opportunity for peaceful unity British safety was not comprimised
4.7.3 All that remained of the Act of Union was the symbolic office of Governer-General and membership of the British Empire
4.8 Long-term results
4.8.1 Eventually the Treaty whcih rejected the sovereignty of the irish Free State were rejected by the Irish Prime Minister de Valera
4.8.2 In 1949 following announcment of neutrality during WWII, Eire cut the last remaining ties with Britain and Commonwealth and became a free state
4.8.3 Clement Attlee accepted irelands status as a republic but passed the Ireland Act - which protected N Ireland
5 The Government of Ireland Act 1920
5.1 The general election in Britainled to an overwhelming victory for Lloyd George's govenerment with the Irish question still needing addressing
5.1.1 Involvement in the war had led to a new emphasis on national self-determination (Treaty of Versailles) Home Rule was now strong prospect - as long as it recognised Ulster's rights and Irleand remained within the Empire
5.2 Terms of the Act
5.2.1 Establishement of two separate Parliaments for Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland
5.2.2 Election to the parliaments decided by proportional representation
5.2.3 Powers similar to the 1914 Home Rule Act (no control over foreign policy, defence, external trade, customs or police)
5.2.4 Supremacy of UK parliament to justify intervention in Northern Ireland
5.3 Ulster Unionist argument accepted (6 counties with Protestant majority)
5.3.1 Both parts of Ieland represented at Westminster with Council for both to deal with common problems Ulster Unionists supported the Act in light of the IRA's violence throughout Ireland
5.4 Accepted by the North (James Craig became Prime Minister)
5.4.1 Failed in the South Sinn Fein relected without contest and the boycotted the new parliament. Ulster Unionists ironically became commited Home Ruler's In the South the political revolution meant that Home Rule was no longer a viable option for Nationalists The Act was 'essentially constructed to solve the Irish problem as it stood in 1914 not in 1920'
6 The Anglo-Irish War
6.1 At the same time as the Government of Ireland Act Westminster was trying to cope with the IRA violent campaign (aimed at police and British soldiers)
6.1.1 Sinn Fein and the IRA beleived their legitimacy on behalf of an existing Irish Republic
6.2 British Government had little idea what was going on in Ireland and so for a long time they refused to recognise the existence of war
6.2.1 Under pressure from Conservative backbenchers - Sinn Fein and IRA was outlawed, the Dail was considered illegal, special powers of arrest introduced To maintain law and order the government relied on the police (who were short staffed and demoralised by attacks against them 176 policemen killed) Recrutiment strengthened by the recruitment of toush ex-soldiers, 'Black-and-Tans,' who were ill-diciplined and semi-military
6.3 In 1920 the IRA campaign became more widespread, more calculated and more brutal, they attacked civillians
6.3.1 The Black-andTans responded similarly and were condoned by the British government, this was condemned by British opinion British realised they were at war and committed troops on a wider scale and introduced martial law in south - Geurilla Warfare
6.4 Bloody Sunday
6.4.1 21st November 1920 in Dublin. IRA killed 11 English civillians (believed to be British intelligence) Black-and-Tans respond by killing players on a sports ground, leaving behind 12 dead and 60 injured. In December much of Cork was burned
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