Human Resources

Abbie Murray
Mind Map by Abbie Murray, updated more than 1 year ago
Abbie Murray
Created by Abbie Murray about 4 years ago
6
1

Description

AS - Level Business Studies (Human Resources) Mind Map on Human Resources, created by Abbie Murray on 04/07/2016.

Resource summary

Human Resources
1 Objectives
1.1 types
1.1.1 labour productivity
1.1.1.1 controls the costs of the business by creating more output per day
1.1.2 number + location of workforce
1.1.2.1 ensures enough employees to meet customer needs and enough size in the location to give high service
1.1.3 engagement and involvement
1.1.3.1 improve business performance
1.1.4 training
1.1.4.1 improve employee performance and attract the best employees
1.1.5 talent development
1.1.5.1 helps to compete and cope with shortages of skilled employees
1.1.6 diversity
1.1.6.1 fairer society of contribution
1.1.7 alignment of values
1.1.7.1 can give competitive advantage and pursues vision
1.2 influences
1.2.1 internal
1.2.1.1 overall objectives
1.2.1.2 attitudes of senior managers
1.2.1.3 hard HR approach
1.2.1.3.1 employees=resource, little pay or control, talked down too
1.2.1.3.2 autocratic
1.2.1.4 soft HR approach
1.2.1.4.1 employees=valuable, consult and give control
1.2.1.4.2 democratic
1.2.1.5 type of product
1.2.2 external
1.2.2.1 tech
1.2.2.1.1 replace labour with tech or online access
1.2.2.2 economy
1.2.2.2.1 revised no of employees needed due to unemployment figures
1.2.2.3 social
1.2.2.3.1 ethical and environmentally friendly products
1.2.2.4 competition
1.2.2.4.1 HR objectives reduce labour costs which makes up for the price elasticity
1.2.2.5 politics
1.2.2.5.1 equalities act, hiring and firing rules
2 Analysis
2.1 labour productivity
2.1.1 output/number of employees
2.1.2 higher productivity is preferred
2.1.2.1 higher profit margins + lower labour cost per unit
2.1.3 depends on motivation andequipment
2.1.4 must look at when analysing
2.1.4.1 aspects of business covered my productivity data
2.1.4.2 productivity ignores wage rates
2.1.4.3 productivity depends on other factors e.g capital intensive businesses
2.1.4.4 competitors productivity
2.2 unit labour costs
2.2.1 non-wage employment cost from production of output
2.2.2 unit labour costs = how much paid to employees for one unit
2.2.2.1 determined by cost of employment and speed produced
2.2.3 higher productivity = lower labour costs ( inverse relationship )
2.2.4 lower preferred
2.3 employee cost as % of revenue
2.3.1 when labour costs make up most of costs (tertiary) this is important to control
2.3.2 influencing factors
2.3.2.1 productivity
2.3.2.2 wage rates
2.3.2.3 non-wage employment costs
2.3.2.4 managment of capacity
2.4 labour turnover and retention
2.4.1 turnover = no. leaving in year/average no. *100
2.4.1.1 caused by low morale, wages and training
2.4.1.2 incurs further costs
2.4.1.3 lower rates desirable
2.4.2 balance recruitment of enthusiastic team with costs of doing so
2.4.3 retention = no. employed in year/average no. *100
2.4.3.1 important to manage due to difficulty with retaining professionals or specialists
2.4.3.2 high rates desirable
2.5 use for planning and decisions
3 Organisational structure and flow
3.1 Job design
3.1.1 affected by
3.1.1.1 task characteristics
3.1.1.2 process
3.1.1.3 ergonomics
3.1.1.4 work practices
3.1.1.5 employee avaliability
3.1.1.6 social expectations
3.1.1.7 feedback
3.1.1.8 autonomy
3.1.1.9 variety
3.1.2 deciding the contents of a job by duties
3.1.3 rotation
3.1.3.1 switching similarly complex tasks with employees
3.1.4 enlargement
3.1.4.1 extends the employees range of duties
3.1.5 enrichment
3.1.5.1 vertically loading the job design with more challenging tasks
3.1.6 empowerment
3.1.6.1 giving control over their working lives
3.1.7 changes to design can improve chance of meeting objectives with motivation, lower costs, higher quality etc
3.2 Organisational design
3.2.1 process of shaping organisational structure to effectively achieve objectives
3.2.2 influences
3.2.2.1 size
3.2.2.2 life cycle
3.2.2.3 corporate objectives
3.2.2.4 technology
3.2.3 organisation structure
3.2.3.1 clear strucutre needed for task divides, groups and coordination
3.2.3.2 hierarchy
3.2.3.2.1 how levels of authority are ranked in structure
3.2.3.3 chain of command
3.2.3.3.1 order in which authority and power are exercised and delegated from top down
3.2.3.4 authority
3.2.3.4.1 power or right to give orders or make decisions
3.2.3.5 span of control
3.2.3.5.1 number of subordinates who can be controlled by one manager
3.2.3.6 flat hierachy = wide span of control
3.2.4
3.3 delegation, centralisation and decentralisation
3.3.1 delegaton = passing of authority to a subordinate
3.3.1.1 power lies with the manager
3.3.2 centralisation = decision making lies with management at top of hierarchy, little input from lower down
3.3.2.1 influences
3.3.2.1.1 uniformity of decisions
3.3.2.1.2 management style
3.3.2.1.3 skills and ability of the workforce
3.3.2.1.4 economic influences
3.3.2.1.5 technology
3.4 flow
3.4.1 movement of employees through a business
3.4.2 recruitment and selection
3.4.2.1 workforce plan decides how many needed
3.4.2.2 job description
3.4.2.2.1 sets out duties and tasks of job
3.4.2.3 job specification
3.4.2.3.1 sets out qualification and qualities required of an employee
3.4.2.4 advertise job
3.4.2.5 shortlist applications against specification
3.4.2.6 select candidates for interview
3.4.3 training is the provision of job related skills and knowledge
3.4.3.1 induction
3.4.3.2 on/off the job training
3.4.4 performance appraisal
3.4.4.1 systematic and periodic process that assesses an employees job performance in relation to criteria
3.4.4.1.1 determines additional training and promotion options
3.4.5 redundancy, redeployment and termination
3.4.5.1 redundancy = dismissal due to job no longer existing
3.4.5.1.1 over 2 yrs work = redundancy pay
3.4.5.1.2 20+ people worker representatives + individuals notified
3.4.5.2 redeployment = moving existing to different job or location
3.4.5.3 dismissal
3.4.5.3.1 gross misconduct
3.4.5.3.2 persistent minor misconduct
3.4.5.3.3 substantial reason
3.4.5.4 natural wastage = loss of employees from retirement, resignation or death
4 Motivation and engagement
4.1 benefits of motivation
4.1.1 productivity
4.1.2 recruitment and retention
4.1.3 absenteeism
4.1.4 innovation
4.1.5 profitability
4.2 motivation theories
4.2.1 Taylor
4.2.1.1 scientific
4.2.1.2 solely motivated by money
4.2.1.3 no control over work
4.2.1.3.1 autocratic
4.2.2 Maslow
4.2.2.1 hierarchy of needs
4.2.2.2 one level satisfied, motivated by the next
4.2.3 Herzberg
4.2.3.1 two factor theory
4.2.3.2 motivators and hygiene factors
4.2.4 Mayo
4.2.4.1 motivation depends on type of work and relationships and morale
4.2.4.2 focus on employee need
4.3 methods of motivation
4.3.1 financial
4.3.1.1 wages and salaries
4.3.1.2 piece rate pay
4.3.1.3 commission
4.3.1.4 profit related pay
4.3.1.5 performance related pay
4.3.1.6 share ownership
4.3.2 non-financial
4.3.2.1 meaningful work
4.3.2.2 involvement
4.3.2.3 responsibility and recognition
4.3.2.4 only possible if
4.3.2.4.1 soft HR, democratic
4.3.2.4.2 opportunity is avaliable
4.3.2.4.3 culture of business
4.4 influences
4.4.1 finances (unit labour costs)
4.4.2 nature of work
4.4.3 culture
4.4.4 external factors
5 Employee-employer relations
5.1 employee involvement
5.2 managing employer-employee relations
5.3 value of good relations
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