Human Resources

Abbie Murray
Mind Map by Abbie Murray, updated more than 1 year ago
Abbie Murray
Created by Abbie Murray about 4 years ago


AS - Level Business Studies (Human Resources) Mind Map on Human Resources, created by Abbie Murray on 04/07/2016.

Resource summary

Human Resources
1 Objectives
1.1 types
1.1.1 labour productivity controls the costs of the business by creating more output per day
1.1.2 number + location of workforce ensures enough employees to meet customer needs and enough size in the location to give high service
1.1.3 engagement and involvement improve business performance
1.1.4 training improve employee performance and attract the best employees
1.1.5 talent development helps to compete and cope with shortages of skilled employees
1.1.6 diversity fairer society of contribution
1.1.7 alignment of values can give competitive advantage and pursues vision
1.2 influences
1.2.1 internal overall objectives attitudes of senior managers hard HR approach employees=resource, little pay or control, talked down too autocratic soft HR approach employees=valuable, consult and give control democratic type of product
1.2.2 external tech replace labour with tech or online access economy revised no of employees needed due to unemployment figures social ethical and environmentally friendly products competition HR objectives reduce labour costs which makes up for the price elasticity politics equalities act, hiring and firing rules
2 Analysis
2.1 labour productivity
2.1.1 output/number of employees
2.1.2 higher productivity is preferred higher profit margins + lower labour cost per unit
2.1.3 depends on motivation andequipment
2.1.4 must look at when analysing aspects of business covered my productivity data productivity ignores wage rates productivity depends on other factors e.g capital intensive businesses competitors productivity
2.2 unit labour costs
2.2.1 non-wage employment cost from production of output
2.2.2 unit labour costs = how much paid to employees for one unit determined by cost of employment and speed produced
2.2.3 higher productivity = lower labour costs ( inverse relationship )
2.2.4 lower preferred
2.3 employee cost as % of revenue
2.3.1 when labour costs make up most of costs (tertiary) this is important to control
2.3.2 influencing factors productivity wage rates non-wage employment costs managment of capacity
2.4 labour turnover and retention
2.4.1 turnover = no. leaving in year/average no. *100 caused by low morale, wages and training incurs further costs lower rates desirable
2.4.2 balance recruitment of enthusiastic team with costs of doing so
2.4.3 retention = no. employed in year/average no. *100 important to manage due to difficulty with retaining professionals or specialists high rates desirable
2.5 use for planning and decisions
3 Organisational structure and flow
3.1 Job design
3.1.1 affected by task characteristics process ergonomics work practices employee avaliability social expectations feedback autonomy variety
3.1.2 deciding the contents of a job by duties
3.1.3 rotation switching similarly complex tasks with employees
3.1.4 enlargement extends the employees range of duties
3.1.5 enrichment vertically loading the job design with more challenging tasks
3.1.6 empowerment giving control over their working lives
3.1.7 changes to design can improve chance of meeting objectives with motivation, lower costs, higher quality etc
3.2 Organisational design
3.2.1 process of shaping organisational structure to effectively achieve objectives
3.2.2 influences size life cycle corporate objectives technology
3.2.3 organisation structure clear strucutre needed for task divides, groups and coordination hierarchy how levels of authority are ranked in structure chain of command order in which authority and power are exercised and delegated from top down authority power or right to give orders or make decisions span of control number of subordinates who can be controlled by one manager flat hierachy = wide span of control
3.3 delegation, centralisation and decentralisation
3.3.1 delegaton = passing of authority to a subordinate power lies with the manager
3.3.2 centralisation = decision making lies with management at top of hierarchy, little input from lower down influences uniformity of decisions management style skills and ability of the workforce economic influences technology
3.4 flow
3.4.1 movement of employees through a business
3.4.2 recruitment and selection workforce plan decides how many needed job description sets out duties and tasks of job job specification sets out qualification and qualities required of an employee advertise job shortlist applications against specification select candidates for interview
3.4.3 training is the provision of job related skills and knowledge induction on/off the job training
3.4.4 performance appraisal systematic and periodic process that assesses an employees job performance in relation to criteria determines additional training and promotion options
3.4.5 redundancy, redeployment and termination redundancy = dismissal due to job no longer existing over 2 yrs work = redundancy pay 20+ people worker representatives + individuals notified redeployment = moving existing to different job or location dismissal gross misconduct persistent minor misconduct substantial reason natural wastage = loss of employees from retirement, resignation or death
4 Motivation and engagement
4.1 benefits of motivation
4.1.1 productivity
4.1.2 recruitment and retention
4.1.3 absenteeism
4.1.4 innovation
4.1.5 profitability
4.2 motivation theories
4.2.1 Taylor scientific solely motivated by money no control over work autocratic
4.2.2 Maslow hierarchy of needs one level satisfied, motivated by the next
4.2.3 Herzberg two factor theory motivators and hygiene factors
4.2.4 Mayo motivation depends on type of work and relationships and morale focus on employee need
4.3 methods of motivation
4.3.1 financial wages and salaries piece rate pay commission profit related pay performance related pay share ownership
4.3.2 non-financial meaningful work involvement responsibility and recognition only possible if soft HR, democratic opportunity is avaliable culture of business
4.4 influences
4.4.1 finances (unit labour costs)
4.4.2 nature of work
4.4.3 culture
4.4.4 external factors
5 Employee-employer relations
5.1 employee involvement
5.2 managing employer-employee relations
5.3 value of good relations
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