OCD

Pip Mooney
Mind Map by Pip Mooney, updated more than 1 year ago
Pip Mooney
Created by Pip Mooney over 5 years ago
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Description

mind map of OCD

Resource summary

OCD
  1. Emotional: anxiety, distress, awareness that it is excessive, leading to shame
    1. Cognitive: recurrent, intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts (obsessions)
      1. Behavioural: compulsive behaviours to reduce obsessive thought, not connected in a realistic way
        1. Biological approach to explaining:
          1. Genetic explanation
            1. COMT gene - one allele more common in OCD, created high levels of dopamine (Tukel et al)
              1. SERT gene - one allele more common in a family with OCD, creates low levels of serotonin (Ozaki et al)
                1. Diathesis-stress - same genes linked to other disorders or no disorders at all, therefore genes create vulnerability
                2. Neural explanation
                  1. Dopamine levels high in OCD - linked to compulsive behaviours in animals studies (Szechtman et al)
                    1. Serotonin levels low in OCD - antidepressants that increase serotonin most effective ( Janicke)
                      1. Worry circuit - damaged caudate nucleus doesn't suppress worry signals from OFC to thalamus
                        1. Serotonin and Dopamine linked to activity in these parts of the frontal lobe (Sukel)
                        2. + Twin studies, twice as likely to have OCD if MZ twins - Genes are not specific to OCD, also linked to Tourette's, autism and anorexia
                        3. Biological approach to treating
                          1. Drug therapy
                            1. Antidepressants increase serotonin
                              1. SSRIs prevent re-uptake of serotonin by pre-synaptic neuron
                                1. Tricyclics block re-uptake of noradrenaline and serotonin but have more severe side effects, so are 2nd choice treatment
                                  1. Anxiety drugs, BZs enhance GABA, a neurotransmitter that slows down the nervous system
                                  2. + SSRIs better than placebo over a short term (Soomro et al) + Drug therapies are preferred, less time and less effort the CBT - Side effects, SSRI's have insomnia, Tricyclics have hallucinations and BZs have addiction
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