Explanations for forgetting: retrieval failure

Daisy  U
Mind Map by Daisy U, updated more than 1 year ago
Daisy  U
Created by Daisy U over 5 years ago


AS - Level psychology (chapter 2 - memory ) Mind Map on Explanations for forgetting: retrieval failure, created by Daisy U on 04/15/2016.

Resource summary

Explanations for forgetting: retrieval failure
  1. retrieval failure theory
    1. basics
      1. one reason why we forget is down to insufficient cues
        1. when we store info we also store cues
          1. if cues aren't there then we might not be able to remember due to retrieval failure
      2. encoding specificity principle (ESP)
        1. Tulving
          1. if a cue is going to help us it needs to be there at the encoding and the recall
            1. if cues are different at either time there will be some forgetting
              1. some are linked in a meaningful way - e.g. mnemonic techniques
                1. others are not meaningful
                  1. context dependant
                    1. state dependant
            2. context dependant forgetting
              1. Godden and Baddeley - scuba divers
                1. procedure - learn one list of words and recall
                  1. either
                    1. learn on land - recall on land
                      1. learn on land - recall underwater
                        1. learn underwater - recall on land
                          1. learn underwater - recall underwater
                  2. findings
                    1. accurate recall was 40% lower in on matching conditions
                      1. the cues were different which led to retrieval failure
                2. state dependant forgetting
                  1. Carter and Cassaday - drugs
                    1. procedure - learn one list of words and recall
                      1. either
                        1. learn on drugs - recall off
                          1. learn on drugs - recall on
                            1. learn off drugs - recall on
                              1. learn off drugs - recall off
                      2. findings
                        1. when there was a mismatch between internal state at learning and recall - test results were worse
                3. evaluation
                  1. supporting evidence
                    1. lots of research to support retrieval failure
                      1. one researcher - Eysenck - said it is the main reason for forgetting in LTM
                    2. questioning context effects
                      1. the two places that you learn have to be very different for there to begin to be any effect
                        1. you can't get much difference between land and sea
                          1. doing it in different rooms aren't different enough
                      2. recall vs recognition
                        1. context effect may be related to the kind of memory being tested
                          1. did the diving study again but used a recognition test instead of recall
                            1. had to say whether they recognised a word being read from a list
                              1. when recognition was tested there was o context dependant effect
                                1. the results were the same in all four conditions
                                  1. limitation - cues only have effect when tested in a certain way
                      3. evaluation +
                        1. problems with the encoding specificity principle
                          1. can ESP be tested - no
                            1. we assume that if a cue was shown then
                              1. if you do remember then the cue was encoded
                                1. if you don't it wasn't
                                  1. but we have no way of knowing
                            2. real life application
                              1. for example when you go upstairs to get something and you forget what you were looking for
                                1. but if you go back downstairs you remember what it was you were looking for
                                  1. if you have forgotten remember were you where - visualise it
                                    1. used in cognitive interviews and eyewitness testimonies - go back to the scene
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