Emily Cushlow
Mind Map by , created over 3 years ago

AS Biopsychology excluding the structure of nerves/neurons

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Emily Cushlow
Created by Emily Cushlow over 3 years ago
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1 The Nervous System controls all biological processes and movements in the body and can be divided into two parts
1.1 Central Nervous System - passes messages to/from the brain and connects nerves to the PNS
1.1.1 Brain - centre of conscious awareness
1.1.2 Spinal cord - extension of the brain
1.2 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - controls sensory and relay neurons and is further divided into two parts
1.2.1 Automatic Nervous System (ANS) controls involuntary functions Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system
1.2.2 Somatic Nervous Sytem (SNS) controls voluntary functions
2 There are three types of neurons that carry neural information around the body
2.1 Sensory Neurons - unipolar neurons (they only transmit messages) that process information taken from one of the 5 senses to find out the current state of the body both inside and out
2.2 Relay Neurons - these multipolar neurons (transmit and receive information) are only located in the brain and spinal cord; they transport messages around the CNS, connecting sensory and moto neurons
2.3 Motor Neurons - also multipolar, motor neurons form synapses with muscles located in the CNS , to carry signals from the CNS to the glands and muscles to inform them of the required function
3 Synapse transmission:
3.1 Each neuron is seperated by a gap known as a synapse
3.1.1 Signals between neurons are transferred chemically via neurotransmitters When an electric signal reaches the presynaptic terminal, it triggers the release of a neurotransmitter from the synaptic vesicle The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse to the postsynaptic receptor site of the next neuron
4 Excitation vs Inhibition
4.1 Excitation - increases the positive charge of the postsynaptic neuron, increasing the chance the signal with be continued e.g. adrenaline
4.1.1 Inhibition - increases the negative charge of the postsynaptic neuron, decreasing the chance of the signal being continued e.g. serotonin
5 Gland types:
5.1 Pituitary - controlled by the hypothalamus, it regulates the endocrine system by releasing a hormone that signals to other glands which hormones need releasing
5.2 Adrenal - facilitates the release of adrenaline as part of the flight or fight response
5.3 Testes - facilitates the release of testosterone, responsible for male well being + development; Women have a small amount of it
5.4 Ovaries - facilitates the release of oestrogen and progesterone, the female hormones responsible for ovulation and the menstrual cycle
6 The fight or flight response
6.1 The hypothalamus percieves the situation as being stressful
6.1.1 The ANS changes from the parasympathetic (resting) state to the sympathetic (physiologically aroused) state A hormone called ACTH is released from the pituitary gland This hormone causes the adrenal gland to release adrenaline, which causes: Increased alertness Increased respiratory rate Increased blood flow to muscles Dilated pupils Increased heart rate Raised blood pressure Reduced activity in digestive system to conserve energy

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