1.1 Canopy- contains 50% of the
rain forests wildlife like:birds,
snakes and monkeys
1.2 Emergent layer- the trees can grow 40-50 metres tall. the
kapok tree is an example of an emergent tree.
1.3 Under Canopy- 25% of the sunlight reaches here, abundant with
insects. lianas climb the taller trees in search of sunlight.
1.4 Shrub Layer- densest plants grow here; ferns and other plants that dont
need alot of light. saplings of emergent trees can be found here. 5% of
sunlight reaches here.
1.5 Forest floor- 2% of the sunlight reaches here, it is dark and
damp and prone to flooding. the floor is covered in a thin
layer of decomposing leaves and animals, it quickly
decomposes and creates a right layer of nutrients and soil,
known as the humus layer.
1.6 Human uses
1.6.1 MINING- MINERAL EXTRACTION
mining for gold and other materials to make money
gold, copper + diamonds are found, cyanide is used to extract, only make $20 a day but they find it enough to live n, mechanised process to sift gold meaning larger areas are left exposed.
1.6.2 CATTLE RANCHING
raising cattle to be slaughtered
60% of land is cleared for cattle ranching, Brazil exports the most meat, 4,000 cattle a week are killed, it is cheaper to cut down trees than to buy new land
1.6.3 FARMING PALM OIL
extracted from the trees, used in make-up and other beauty products
50% of packaged products in supermarkets contain it, unsustainabe and damages trees.
1.6.4 SLASH AND BURN
forest gives oxygen, containing remedies for cancer, destroying land, CO2 produced, fires are uncontrollable
1?3 of deforestation is caused this way, 2 acres of land per second is destroyed, within 100 years all the rainforest will have vanished, makes land infertile.
1.6.5 ROAD BUILDING
building a road to promote eco-tourism and join two places together
trans-amazonian highway is 2,500 miles long, greatest source of diversity on the planet, increasing income for local people and businesses.
1.6.6 RUBBER TAPPING
collecting latex from rubber trees
63,000 families earn a living by supplying rubber to the Brazillian government
2 Temperate Decidous Forest
2.2 Brown earth soils: free draining, litter rich in nutrients,
intense biological activity, colour gets lighter with depth.
3 Hot Desert Ecosystem
At 30 degrees north and south of the sun, there is no clouds. So the full force of the sun is shining down. Becuase of not having clouds the high temperatures dissapear, making the nights extremely cold. There has been reports of frosts in the desert
Is a process by which salts from within the soil are deposited on top of the soils surface. Drawn out of the soil by the high levels of evaporation. It is also the opposite of leaching.
Salinisation makes the soil too salty for many plants to grow and therefor inhibits human uses of desert areas.
3.3 Xerophytic adaptation
-seeds which germinate, flower and die back within 24 hours
-thick waxy skin to prevent water loss
-needle leaves to reduce surface area and water loss
3.4 Thar Desert, Southern Pakistan and North-West India-LEDC
3.4.1 Subsistence Farming
The area is not very fertile. Soils are quickly drained, and contain few nutrients
The farming is limited, typically a few animals on more grassy areas, and fruit.
Since the Indira Ghandi canal, commercial farming can take place. Irrigates areas near Jodhpur. Wheat and cotton can be grown. The canal also supplies drinking water.
Resources such as limestone and gypsum are found in this desert, and are valuable for the building industry