AS level History (Hackett) (2.4 Luther's protest (1517-21)) Mind Map on LUTHER'S PROTEST (1517-21), created by dolce-n-banana on 02/02/2014.
Mind Map by dolce-n-banana, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by dolce-n-banana over 9 years ago

Resource summary

  1. 'Indulgences are not based on scripture' - Martin Luther
    1. Indulgences reduces time in purgatory (apparently)
      1. Patrick Collinson, 'without Luther there would of been no Reformation, or not the same reformation'
        1. Luther, unintentionally at first changed world history
          1. Attacked Catholic practices
          2. LUTHER
            1. Academic but could touch the feelings of an ordinary man
              1. Huge energy, believed in what he was saying (conviction), powerful way with words
                1. 1505, left Uni to become a monk at a strict Augustinian monastery - in a thunderstorm, he vowed to St Anne he would become a monk if his life was spared
                  1. Became a professor at the Uni of Wittenberg
                2. FREDRICK THE WISE (d.1525)
                  1. Luther would of been executed at an early stage without the protection of Fredrick
                    1. Highly respected, had a sense of justice
                      1. He elected the HRE - so Charles V could never be allowed to silence Luther without causing annoyance from Fredrick
                      2. INDULGENCE CONTROVERSY & THE 95 THESES
                        1. Indulgence- lessen time in purgatory
                          1. Popes saw a financial advantage to selling indulgences (became a well-organised system)
                            1. 1476 - buy indulgences for a friend or relative in purgatory-soul could be released by cash payment
                            2. 1514-Indulgences were to pay for the St Peter's basilica in Rome
                              1. Profits spilt between Pope Leo X & the Archbishop of Mainz (debt after paying for his archbishopric)
                              2. Everyone who bought an indulgence, their sins would be forgiven too
                                1. Dominican friar - JOHN TETZEL - preached was the worst technique a salesmen could do - used emotional blackmail (d.1519)
                                  1. 'As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs'
                                    1. 'Place your penny on the drum, the pearly gates open & in strolls mum'
                                      1. His methods were challenged by Luther
                                      2. Indulgences banned in Electoral Saxony by Fredrick the Wise (no competition for his holy relics- which also reduced time in purgatory)
                                        1. THE 95 THESES - 31 October 1517
                                          1. Sale of indulgences enraged Luther
                                            1. Nailed them to the Church door of Wittenberg- to start debate (no proof though) but it circulated quickly
                                              1. Timed on purpose. First two days of November - focus on dead & souls in purgatory - demand for indulgences would then be high.
                                                1. Sent copies to his own bishop & Archbishop of Mainz
                                              2. LUTHER'S IDEAS
                                                1. Luther wanted to find the best route to salvation; he did 'good works' (fasting, vigils-being awake when your supposed to be asleep-, repeating prayers, confessing sins (did it for 6 hours & was still not satisfied)
                                                  1. Doing these rituals, nearly killed him, 'so that the bones stood out of him'
                                                    1. 'Love God! I hated him!'
                                                  2. Johannes von Staupitz (member of the Augustinian order) advised Luther to do biblical study to learn more about God than seeing him as a stern judge
                                                    1. Influenced by humanist ideas such as Erasmus' New Testament (1516)
                                                      1. God was a God of mercy - depended on justification of faith alone
                                                        1. God sent Christ into our world to save sinners - hope for everyone
                                                          1. Faith alone was essential in salvation
                                                          2. 'Faith alone' was not anything new - it had been in the New testament, so his theology was a revival of early Christian teaching
                                                            1. Caused controversy - made the Churches teachings seem irrelevant
                                                              1. pilgrimages, relics, indulgences = no way of helping you gaining salvation
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                                                          THE OUTCOME OF THE INDULGENCE CONTROVERSY & LUTHER'S PROTEST
                                                          LUTHER'S IDEAS
                                                          THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION
                                                          CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION 2
                                                          CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION 3
                                                          THE URSULINES 1535
                                                          FACTORS LEADING TO (CATHOLIC) REFORMATION - The condition of the Catholic Church in the early C16th
                                                          NEW ORDERS (AQA pg 32)
                                                          THE ORATORY OF DIVINE LOVE (AQA pg.33-Brown book pg.75)
                                                          THE THEATINES (AQA pg.34)
                                                          THE CAPUCHINS 1528