CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION 2

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AS level History (Hackett) (2.5 The growth of Lutheranism (1521-55)) Mind Map on CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION 2, created by dolce-n-banana on 02/02/2014.

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CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION 2
1 CIVIL WAR
1.1 Charles left the empire in 1521 & made his brother deputy President of the Regency Council. Job? To enforce the Edict of Worms
1.1.1 Ferdinand was more flexible to dealing with the religious issues because he needed the military & financial support of the princes to protect the Habsburg land from the Turks
1.1.2 Realised there was no chance of defeating the Protestant princes, so he ordered the Peace of Augsburg 1555
1.2 Diet of Nuremberg 1522 & 1524 - Papal representive demanded the arrest of Lutheran preachers & to capture Luther but this just created hostility towards the Pope
1.2.1 TWO arguments produced (both rejected)
1.2.1.1 It would enforce the Edict if the Church would reform itself & stop taking money out of Germany
1.2.1.2 German national council should be called to settle the problems of the Church
2 Regensburg was important because:
2.1 1525 - catholic princes formed the defensive League of Dessau
2.2 1526 - Saxony, Hesse, Brandenburg formed the League of Torgau
2.2.1 Opened negotiations with the enemies (France) for help in the future
3 FIRST DIET OF SPEYER 1526
3.1 Charles V was unable to deal effectively with the spread of Lutheranism because of the war with France BUT his victory over the French at Pavia (1525) allowed him to call a diet
3.2 Charles demanded that those who had broken the law were to be punished
3.3 By the time the Diet met, Turks were increasing in threat & France declared war again
3.4 Both Catholic & Luthean Princes said 'each should conduct himself towards the Edict of Worms as he should answer for it towards God & the Emperor' - each prince can do what they like with religion
4 THE SECOND DIET OF SPEYER (1526)
4.1 1529 - Charles position improved (Peace with France & Pope, Turks stopped at Vienna, Spread of Lutheranism alarmed catholic princes)
4.2 Proposal to stop Lutheran services in the Catholic states
4.2.1 6 Lutheran princes & 14 Imperial cities protested (Protestants)
5 DIET OF AUGSBURG 1530
5.1 Aim; find common ground with Lutherans & Catholics
5.2 Philip Melancthon invited to present the Lutheran ideas, 'Confession of Augsburg'
5.2.1 28 Articles (written in a non-controversial style)
5.2.1.1 Worship of saints not acceptable but their images in Church was acceptable
5.2.2 Communion of both kinds acceptable
5.2.3 Mass was not a sacrifice (transubstantiation)
5.2.4 Abuses of the church condemned
5.2.5 Justification of faith alone clarified
5.2.6 Only two sacraments
5.2.7 Authority of the Pope not all accepted
5.3 Catholics rejected the Confession of Augsburg
5.4 Charles said he was to enforce the Edict of Worms & gave the Lutherans 6 months to return to the Church
6 THE SUCCESS OF LUTHERANISM 1531-41
6.1 Despite Charles' bold declaration at the Diet of Augsburg (1530) - Charles position weakend
6.1.1 Turks attacked again & Charles V needed money to defend the Habsburg lands
6.1.2 Ottoman navy growing strong in the Mediterranean
6.2 March 1531 - 8 princes & 11 imperial cities joined to form the defensive Schmalkaldic league
6.2.1 John of Saxony & Philip of Hesse
6.2.2 Protect any state whose true gospel was underthreat
6.2.3 At the Diet of Nuremberg 1532 - Charles declared he would not attack the league in return for money & men
6.2.3.1 (Imperial truce) Lutheran & Catholic troops vs. Turks
6.2.4 Francis I joined it & Henry VIII protected it
6.2.5 War with the Schmalkaldic League started in 1546 (hesse, Saxony, Wurttemberg & 4 imperial cities fought)
6.2.5.1 1547 - Battle of Muhlberg (Lutherans lost) - Maurice granted Electoral Saxony & Charles gained much of Germany
6.3 Catholic League formed in 1538 to resist the Lutherans
6.4 Charles failed again to find compromise by bringing Catholic & Lutherans together at Regensburg on 1541
6.4.1 This failure meant that he only saw force as an answer + political situation was turning around for him:
6.4.1.1 Bigamy of Philip Hesse (Propaganda for the Catholics)
6.4.1.2 War with France ended in 1542-4 (peace of Crepy) - France no longer supported the Schmalkaldic League
6.4.1.3 1545 - Truce with the Turks
6.4.1.4 1545 - First session of the Council of Trent
6.4.1.5 1546 - Pope Paul III, gave money & men to Charles V as support in war against the Lutherans
6.5 July 1546 - The Diet of Regensburg put John Fredrick of Saxony under Imperial Ban & he was ordered to give up Lutheranism. Maurice of Saxony was promised lands & a title of Elector for his support.
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