THE OUTCOME OF THE INDULGENCE CONTROVERSY & LUTHER'S PROTEST

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Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

AS level History (Hackett) (2.4 Luther's protest (1517-21)) Mind Map on THE OUTCOME OF THE INDULGENCE CONTROVERSY & LUTHER'S PROTEST, created by dolce-n-banana on 02/02/2014.

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dolce-n-banana
Created by dolce-n-banana over 5 years ago
FACTORS LEADING TO (CATHOLIC) REFORMATION - The condition of the Catholic Church in the early C16th
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NEW ORDERS (AQA pg 32)
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THE URSULINES 1535
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Essay Outline
Kai Ladd
The Rise of the Nazis
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LUTHER'S PROTEST (1517-21)
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LUTHER'S IDEAS
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THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION
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CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION 2
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CONSEQUENCES OF THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION 3
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THE OUTCOME OF THE INDULGENCE CONTROVERSY & LUTHER'S PROTEST
1 Wasn't intentionally attacking the authority of Pope and purgatory in general
2 Affected powerful people; Archbishop of Mainz, Pope Leo X, Dominican friar
2.1 Pope Leo left the Augustinian order deal with Luther - Staupitz sympathised & protected him
2.1.1 Pope Leo X then ordered Luther to Rome - denied
2.1.1.1 Issue then settled in Germany
2.1.1.1.1 Prierias (papal theologian) prepared a case against Luther - to deny the authority of the Pope to issue indulgences was heresy
2.1.1.1.1.1 Luther rejected this, moving him further away from the orthodox view
3 Church worried about what the attack had on the financial result
3.1 Laity delighted with Luther's views
4 95 Theses translated to German (originally Latin) & spread across Germany & Switzerland
5 Pamphlets produced - Dominican order produced a pamphlet supporting indulgences, Luther fired back with 'a Sermon on Indulgences' (bestseller)
6 MEETING AT AUGSBURG, OCT 1518
6.1 Cardinal Cajetan represented the Pope
6.2 Aim; to get Luther to admit that he was wrong
6.3 Luther denied the Popes authority over indulgences
6.4 Luther said that the Church doctrines need to be tested against the scriptures
6.5 Luther was seen as an 'honest german'
6.5.1 As he was popular, Cajetan couldn't arrest him or take him away from Germany without causing public outcry
7 THE LEIPZIG DEBATE, JULY 1519
7.1 Luther said that there should be a general council of the Church which would have the supreme authority
7.2 Luther concluded that it was only 'faith alone that saves' NOT good works aswell
7.3 Pope left Luther alone in 1519 because he wanted Fredrick to vote for his candidate in the imperial election
7.4 Public debate at Leipzig Uni (Luther vs. John Eck) - lasted 18days
7.4.1 Eck was a Dominican friar who wanted to correct the abuses of the Church but was dedicated to defend the teachings of the Church
7.4.1.1 Best debater in Germany
7.5 Forced in a corner, Luther condemned himself - faith alone saves, scripture alone is what to believe in, authority of the Pope was based on a lie (no evidence in Bible)
7.5.1 Basically agreeing with the views the heretic, Jan Hus had
7.6 Eck produced the 'bull of excommunication' in June 1520
7.6.1 41 of Luther's views was heretical
7.6.2 Forbidden to read his works (some burned in public)
7.6.3 60 days to recant
7.6.4 Forbidden to write any new works & preach
7.6.5 Serious resistance in the North & central Germany
7.6.5.1 Duke George published the bull in Leipzig - ripped down in the night
7.6.5.2 10th December, students of Wittenberg burned copies of the canon law, anti-Lutheran books (Luther attended and dramatically burned a copy of the papal bull)
7.6.5.2.1 January 1521 - Luther's excommunication finalised
8 THE DIET OF WORMS (JAN-APRIL 1521)
8.1 Charles V elected HRE in 1519
8.1.1 Gave Luther a hearing
8.1.1.1 Pope Leo X wanted Charles V to enforce Luther's condemnation - But Charles couldn't upset the princes who voted for him
8.1.1.1.1 Public was pro-Luther that arresting him would of been difficult
8.2 Charles offered safe conduct (Jan Hus promised the same, but promise had not been kept - Luther had too much support to be in danger)
8.2.1 Allowed to return to Wittenberg safely - 'Kidnapped' & taken to Elector Fredrick's Wartburg Castle where he remained for the next 10months
8.2.1.1 Able to produce pamphlets + translated the New Testament into German
8.3 Highest in the land was present
8.4 Pointless?
8.4.1 Did not explain/debate his views
8.4.2 Asked if the writings was his & if he was prepared to give up his opinions
8.5 'I cannot & will not retract anything for to act against our conscience is neither safe nor open to us' - Luther
8.6 Luther declared an outlaw - anyone who gave him shelter or supported him, was said to be aiding heresy

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