10.4 Plant Cell Structure

Lauren Doyle
Mind Map by Lauren Doyle, updated more than 1 year ago
Lauren Doyle
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AQA Exam Board Biology
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10.4 Plant Cell Structure
1 Leaf Palisade Cell
1.1 Function: to carry out photosynthesis.
1.1.1 The features that suit it for its function include:
1.1.1.1 ♦ Long, thin cells that form a continuous layer to absorb sunlight.
1.1.1.1.1 ♦ Lots of chloroplasts arranged to best collect sunlight.
1.1.1.1.1.1 ♦ A large vacuole that pushes the cytoplasm and chloroplasts to the edge of the cell.
2 Cell Wall
2.1 The cell wall consists of microfibrils of the polysaccharide cellulose embedded in a matrix.
2.1.1
2.1.1.1 Cell walls have the following features:
2.1.1.1.1 ♦ A number of polysaccharides, such as cellulose.
2.1.1.1.1.1 ♦ The 'middle lamella', a thin layer between adjacent cell walls which cements them together.
2.2 Functions of the cell wall are:
2.2.1 ♦ To prevent the cell bursting under the pressure created by the osmotic entry of water.
2.2.1.1 ♦ To give mechanical strength to the plant.
2.2.1.1.1 ♦ Allow water to pass along it.
2.3 Cellulose microfibrils are very strong.
3 Chloroplasts
3.1 Disc-shaped, 2-10μ long and 1μm in diameter. Their main features are:
3.1.1 ♦ The Chloroplast Envelope - a double plasma membrane. It selects what comes in and out of the chloroplast.
3.1.1.1 ♦ The Grana - are stacks of up to 100 thylakoids, which contain chlorophyll. 1st stage of photosynthesis takes place here.
3.1.1.1.1 ♦ The Stroma - a fluid-filled matrix. Contains starch grains. 2nd stage of photosynthesis takes place here.
3.2 Chloroplasts are adapted to their function of carrying out photosynthesis in the following ways:
3.2.1 ♦ The granal membranes provide a large surface area for the attachment of chlorophyll, electron carriers and enzymes that carry out the 1st stage of photosynthesis.
3.2.1.1 ♦ The fluid of the stroma has all the enzymes needed for the 2nd stage.
3.2.1.1.1 ♦ Chloroplasts contain DNA and ribosomes so they can quickly and easily manufacture some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis.
4 Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells:
4.1 Plant Cells
4.1.1 Cellulose cell wall & cell-surface membrane.
4.1.1.1 Vast amounts of chloroplasts.
4.1.1.1.1 Have a large, single, central vacuole filled with cell sap.
4.1.1.1.1.1 Starch grains are used for storage.
4.2 Animal Cells
4.2.1 Only cell-surface membrane.
4.2.1.1 No chloroplasts.
4.2.1.1.1 If vacuoles are present they are small and scattered around.
4.2.1.1.1.1 Glycogen granules are used for storage.
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