Civil Rights Movement

Mind Map by XAK, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by XAK almost 4 years ago



Resource summary

Civil Rights Movement
1 Background
1.1 1776 US Declaration of independence declared ‘all men are created equal’
1.2 For many Liberal commentators the product of this history of racial discrimination is the continuing existence of institutional racism and lack of opportunities for minorities.
1.3 For many conservative commentators the USA has rid itself of racism and is today a post-racial society and there is true equality for all.
1.4 For many conservative commentators the USA has rid itself of racism and is today a post-racial society and there is true equality for all. Feel there isn’t any need to rectify historical issues of discrimination.
1.5 Liberals point towards the political and moral responsibility of the US government to redress continuing barriers to educational and economic achievement facing minorities.
1.6 With growing importance of Latino vote, conservatives see immigration reform as strictly controlling immigration and securing US borders from illegal immigrants, sealing Mexico borders, and taking a more proactive approach to finding and deporting undocumented aliens.
1.7 Liberals claim that immigrants are people with rights who are essential to a failing economy and should be encouraged to integrate with society through a nationwide amnesty programme. Support the DREAM act.
2 Early Developments
2.1 19th Century: use constitution to guarantee rights and representation for racial minorities. 13th, 14th and 15th amendments passed immediately after the civil war. However, segregation remained rife, especially in the deep south. Also saw rise in residential segregation, blacks moved to inner cities to find work whilst suburbs were still largely white.
2.2 20th Century
2.2.1 1954 supreme court decision in Brown V. Topeka Board of Education led to passage of civil rights legislation from 1964. Equality of opportunity = giving people rights. Equality of results = implementation.
2.2.2 Busing = creating racially mixed schools and neighbourhoods. Quotas = reserving a certain percentage of places for people in preliously disadvantaged groups. Affirmative action = giving those members of a previously disadvantaged group a headstart in areas such as education and employment. ‘Positive discrimination’ now required by law for all federal government agencies.
2.2.3 WW2 helped move to desegregation with moves to outlaw racial discrimination in defence industries and armed forces. Court overturned ‘separate but equal’ decision as separate is not equal, making this true for not only schools but buses, parks etc…
3 Civil Rights Campaigners
3.1 In May 1961, the congress of racial equality (CORE) sent ‘freedom riders’ of both races to challenge segregated seating arrangements on transport. 70,000 people participated and 3,600 arrested.
3.2 Martin Luther King speech delivered 28th August 1963
3.3 Civil rights legislation in Congress passed only after a southerner- Lyndon Johnson pushed it through appealing for passage as a tribute to the assassinated J.F.Kennedy.
3.4 Those wanting change peacefully and through politics: Shirley Chrisholm, Jessie Jacksjon, Kweisi Mfune and Barak Obama
3.5 Those wanting violent and radical change: Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan
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