1.1 A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked
impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts
2 What it Takes to Classify Someone With it
2.1 five (or more) of the following: (1) frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. (2) a pattern of
unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of
idealization and devaluation (3) identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or
sense of self (4) impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (5) recurrent suicidal
behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior (6) affective instability due to a marked
reactivity of mood (7) chronic feelings of emptiness (8) inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty
controlling anger (9) transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms
3.1 Environmental factors — such as a history of child abuse or neglect. Also, genetics may be a cause
because studies of twins and families suggest that personality disorders may be inherited. Brain
abnormalities may be a cause because research has shown changes in certain areas of the brain
involved in emotion regulation, impulsivity and aggression.
4.1 Emotional instability, feelings of worthlessness, insecurity, impulsivity, and impaired social relationships.
5.1 Treatments include talk therapy or, in some cases, medications. Hospitalization helps if symptoms are
6.1 Individuals with this Cluster B Personality Disorder behave impulsively and their relationships,
self-image, and emotions are unstable.