Memory: Accuracy of EWT- Misleading Information

Emma-Leigh Forman
Mind Map by Emma-Leigh Forman, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma-Leigh Forman
Created by Emma-Leigh Forman over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Memory: Accuracy of EWT- Misleading Information, created by Emma-Leigh Forman on 04/27/2016.

Resource summary

Memory: Accuracy of EWT- Misleading Information
  1. Innocence project suggested that 72% of convictions overturned by DNA testing involved inaccurate EWT's
    1. Two example of Misleading information are 'Leading Questions' 'Post-event discussion'.
      1. LEADING QUESTIONS!
        1. LOFTUS + PALMER (1974)
          1. PROCEDURE: 45 students were shown 7 different films of road accidents. Each were asked the critical question: 'about how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?' Split into 5 groups- group 1 was asked the above question. Other 4 were asked the question but the word hit was replaced with 'smashed, collided bumped, hit and contacted'.
            1. Verbs used are leading as they imply a certain speed.
            2. FINDINGS: mean speed estimates were as follows.. Smashed = 40.8mph, Collided = 39.3mph, Bumped= 38.1mph, Hit = 34mph, Contacted = 31.8mph
            3. LOFTUS + PALMER (EXPERIMENT NO.2)
              1. PROCEDURE: A new set of participants are divided into 3 groups and were shown a film of an accident (1min long). They were then questioned about the speed as before. Participants were asked to return a week later to answer some questions including critical question 'Did you see any broken glass?' (no broken glass was in the film).
                1. FINDINGS... SMASHED = 16 yes, HIT = 7 yes, CONTROL GROUP= 6 yes. Verb influenced memory participant had of event.
                2. POST EVENT DISCUSSION!
                  1. CONFORMITY EFFECT: Gabbert et al (2003) suggested that Co-witnesses create a consensus of what happened between one another.
                    1. PROCEDURE: Participants were put into pairs and each was shown a different video and so viewed completely unique items. Before recalling back what they had seen to researcher, pairs were encouraged to discuss the videos.
                      1. FINDINGS: 71% of participants recalled incorrect information
                      2. REPEAT INTERVIEWING: La Rooy et al (2005)- each time a person is interviewed their account cn be altered by comments made by the interviewer. Eg. they may use leading questions. He found that the effect was greater on young people.
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