Brain & Cognition Lectures 1-4 Revision Summary

Soyful Alam
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Soyful Alam
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Psychology -Brain & Cognition Lectures 1-4 Revision Summary

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Brain & Cognition Lectures 1-4 Revision Summary
  1. Lecture 1
    1. Why do we study the brain?
      1. The brain is physical organ that makes all mental life possible and understanding the neural basis process can help distinguish between theories relating to how that process is performed
      2. Methods of studying the brain
        1. EEG - Recording - Non-invasive - Electrical
          1. Electrodes placed on scalp, represented as large signal of neurons
            1. Averaged together to form ERP - Event related Potential
            2. Voltage fluctuation associated in time with events
            3. Single Cell - Recording - Invasive - Electrical
              1. TMS - Stimulation - non--invasive- Electromagnet
                1. Introduction of virtual lesion by introducing neural noise
                  1. Disrupts normal brain activity
                2. MEG - Recording - Non-invasive - Magnetic
                  1. PET - Recording - Invasive - Hemodynamic
                    1. Uses traces of amount of short lived radioactive material to map function processes
                      1. Measures blood flow direct to brain regions
                      2. FMRI - Recording - Non-invasive - Hemodynamic
                        1. Neuronal activity requiring oxygen and glucose (energy)
                          1. Neuronal activity produces changes in blood oxygenation levels
                            1. Is noninvasive as FMRI uses contrast between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood levels
                            2. MRI is most common which uses differential magnetic properties of types of tissue
                              1. DTI – Diffusion Tensor Imaging: visualize connec9ons in the brain (bundles of axons)
                          2. Lecture 2
                            1. Directions of the nervous system
                              1. Top/Back = Dorsal
                                1. Belowl/Belly = Ventral
                                  1. Toward side = Lateral
                                    1. Front - Anterior/ Back - Posterior
                                      1. Front - Rostral/ Back = Cordal
                                    2. Middle = Medial
                                      1. Same side - Ipsilateral
                                        1. Opposite side = Contralateral
                                          1. Bell magedie law
                                            1. Dorsal carry info TO CNS - Afferent
                                              1. Ventral carry info AWAY CNS - Afferent
                                          2. Brain Slices and Planes
                                            1. Transverse section - coronal - right angle to neuraxis
                                              1. Sagittal - Perpendicular to ground
                                                1. Horizontal - Parellel to ground
                                                2. Basal Ganglia
                                                  1. Cerebral Cortext
                                                    1. Limbic System
                                                      1. Thalamus
                                                        1. Hypothalamus
                                                          1. Tectum
                                                            1. Tegenemtum
                                                              1. Cerebral cortex
                                                                1. Pons
                                                                  1. Medulla Oblongata
                                                                    1. Myencaphalon
                                                                      1. Fourth Ventricle
                                                                        1. Hindbrain
                                                                  2. Metencephalon
                                                                    1. Fourth Ventricle
                                                                      1. Hindbrain
                                                                2. Mesencephalon
                                                                  1. Cerebral aduedat
                                                                    1. Midbrain
                                                              2. Diceohaphalon
                                                                1. Third
                                                                  1. Forebrain
                                                            2. Bum- Gyrus
                                                              1. Sulci grooves - big = fissure
                                                              2. Telecaphalon
                                                                1. Lateral
                                                                  1. Forebrain
                                                              3. Protection of the CNS
                                                                1. Meninges - Dura, Arochnoid & Pia
                                                                  1. Pia is the last later which adheres surface of the brain
                                                                  2. CSF
                                                                    1. Plasma Fluid which the brain floats
                                                                      1. Formed in the plexus
                                                                        1. Upton 150 ml
                                                                    2. Lecture 3
                                                                      1. The Neuron
                                                                        1. Type of cell that makes up the nervous system and supports cognitive and sensory functions
                                                                          1. The information processing and information transmitting element
                                                                            1. Multipolar, Bipolar and Unipolar
                                                                              1. One axon many dendrites
                                                                                1. One axon and one dendrite
                                                                                  1. One axon to soma and divides branches to receiving and sending
                                                                                2. Glial cells
                                                                                  1. Astrocytes - star function, clean debris, provide nurishment, control chemicals and store glucose
                                                                                    1. Oligodendrocytes - myelin sheath for insulation
                                                                                      1. Nodes of ranvier - Bare sections of the axon
                                                                                  2. Lecture 4
                                                                                    1. Psychopharmacology
                                                                                      1. Study of effects of drugs on the nervous system and behaviour
                                                                                        1. Antagonist - Drug that opposes or inhibits the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell
                                                                                          1. Decrease effect
                                                                                          2. Agonist - increasing effects that facilitates neurotransmitter
                                                                                          3. All other neurotransmitters have a modulating effect rather than information transferring
                                                                                            1. GABA - Inhibitory synapses in spinal cord
                                                                                              1. Glutamate - Excitatory synapses in brain
                                                                                              2. Neurotransmitters
                                                                                                1. Acetylcholine
                                                                                                  1. Transmitter at neuromuscular junction - motor neurons to muscles
                                                                                                    1. Involved in REM sleeping, dreaming and perceptual learning
                                                                                                      1. An ionotropic ACh receptor stimulated by nicotine and blocked by curare (paralysis).
                                                                                                        1. Antagonist = Botulinum toxin
                                                                                                          1. Agonist = Black widow spider
                                                                                                      2. Dopamine
                                                                                                        1. Reward system - dysfunctions shows parkinson disease
                                                                                                          1. Antagonist - Anti-psychotics
                                                                                                            1. Agonist - Cocaine
                                                                                                          2. Serotonin
                                                                                                            1. Regulates sleep, memory, mood etc.
                                                                                                              1. Major role in depression
                                                                                                                1. LCD - Antagonist
                                                                                                                  1. SSRI - Agonist
                                                                                                                2. Norepinephrine
                                                                                                                  1. Hormone- flight or fight in times of stress produces sudden energy
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