Approaches

Laura Louise
Mind Map by Laura Louise, updated more than 1 year ago
Laura Louise
Created by Laura Louise over 5 years ago
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AS - Level Psychology Mind Map on Approaches, created by Laura Louise on 05/19/2016.

Resource summary

Approaches
  1. Biopsychology
    1. Neurons
        1. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are released from the axon terminals, They pass across the synapse, to pass on the signal to the dendrites of the next neurone.
          1. Sensory neurons- The nerve cells that transmit electrical impulses from receptors to the CNS.
            1. Relay neurons- The nerve cells that transmit electrical impulses between sensory neurons and motor neurons.
              1. Motor neurons- The nerve cells that transmit electrical impulses from the CNS to the effectors.
                1. stimulus → receptors → CNS → effectors → response
                  1. Vesicles are filled with neurotransmitters in the axon terminals and they release them across the synapse to the pre-synaptic neuron. The neurotransmitters meet the receptors on the other axon and trigger an electrical impulse. The neurotransmitters are then reabsorbed by the re-uptake transporter.
                    1. Excitatory neurotransmitters- increase the likelihood that an electrical impulse will be triggered in the post synaptic neuron. Inhibitory neurotransmitters decrease the likelihood than an electrical impulse will be triggered in post synaptic neuron.
                      1. Dopamine- neurotransmitter that helps with movement, attention and learning.
                        1. Seretonin- involved in emotion, mood, sleeping and eating.
                        2. The nervous system
                          1. The Central nervous system- made up of the brain and the spinal cord.
                            1. The peripheral nervous system- made up of the neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
                              1. The somatic nervous system controls conscious activities e.g running.
                                1. The autonomic nervous system controls unconscious activities e.g digestion.
                                  1. Sympathetic nervous system gets the body ready for action. It's the 'fight or flight' system.
                                    1. The parasympatethic nervous system calms the body down. It's the 'rest and digest' system.
                                2. Hormones
                                  1. The endocrine system involves glands and hormones. Hormones are secreted when a gland is stimulated. Hormones diffuse into the blood and they're taken around the body in the circulatory system. The hormones trigger a response in the effectors.
                                    1. Hypothalamus- homeostasis (thirst, temperature etc.)
                                      1. Pituitary gland- master gland. releases hormones to control other glands. Releases oxytocin.
                                        1. Adrenal gland- produces adrenaline. Outer part is the Adrenal Cortex - releases cortisol for stress. Inner part is the Adrenal Medulla- produces adrenaline.
                                          1. Fight or flight: -Increased heart and blood rate. -Digestion decreases. -Muscles become tense. -Perspiration increases. -Breathing rate increases. -Salivation decreases.
                                          2. Brain
                                            1. Diencephalon- Thalamus and hypothalamus.
                                              1. Cerebrum- Largest part; includes all the lobes.
                                                1. Frontal lobes- thought, speech and learning.
                                                  1. Temporal lobes- hearing & memory.
                                                    1. Occipital lobes- visual information.
                                                    2. Brain stem- Automatic functions.
                                                      1. Cerebellum- Balance and coordination.
                                                    3. Biological approach
                                                      1. All behaviour has a physical cause- biochemistry, neuroanatomy or genetics.
                                                        1. Genotype and phenotype
                                                          1. Genotype is the genetic code written into the DNA of individual cells. Phenotype is the physical appearance of the individual.
                                                            1. Monozygotic twins (MZ) share 100% of eachother's genes. Dizygotic twins (DZ) share 50% of eachother's genes.
                                                              1. Behaviours are inherited in the same way as physical characteristics such as hair colour.
                                                                1. Gottesman- OCD concordance; MZ twins 70%, 34.5% DZ twins.
                                                                2. Brain structure
                                                                  1. Phineas Gage- had damage to his frontal lobe after an explosion at work. Afterwards he was unorganised, impulsive and aggressive.
                                                                    1. PET scans- shows which part of the brain is active during different tasks. Helps us link certain parts to certain functions.
                                                                      1. Raine- Pet scans of 41 murderers were compared to the brains of similar non-murderers. Pre-frontal cortex activity was found to be lower in the murderer, concluding that the frontal lobe is important in the control of impulsive behaviour.
                                                                      2. Evolutionary
                                                                        1. Proposed by Charles Darwin- any genetically determined behaviour that enhances both survival and reproduction will be passed onto future generations.
                                                                        2. ADV: Uses scientific approaches, creates reliable, testable and objective data. Has real life application; led to the development of psychoactive drugs to treat disorders. Determinist; bases human behaviour on natural functions which we have no control over (avoidance of personal responsibility) . DISAD: Does not take into account the role of peoples environment, their family and experiences.
                                                                        3. Cognitive approach
                                                                          1. Wundt
                                                                            1. Opened the Institute for Experimental Psychology in Germany in 1879. He separated psychology from philosophy and focused on studying the mind in a much more structured and scientific way.
                                                                              1. Introspection- a psychological method which involves analysing your own thoughts and feelings internally. Participants were asked to describe their experiences when presented with a set of stimuli.
                                                                                1. -Doesn't explain how the mind works. It relies on people describing their thoughts and feelings, which isn't usually objective. - It doesn't provide data that can be used reliably. Because people are reporting on their experiences and there is no proof that what is being said is accurate.
                                                                              2. Schemas
                                                                                1. Schema-mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing. They are developed from experience.
                                                                                  1. Psychologists investigate thinking by manipulating what people take into their minds (information) and observing what comes out (behaviour).
                                                                                    1. Inference- the process whereby cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of observed behaviour.
                                                                                      1. Self-schemas- contain information about ourselves based on physical characteristics and personality, as well as beliefs and values. Self schemas can affect how you act.
                                                                                      2. Informational Processing Model
                                                                                        1. Computers and computer models are often used to explain how we think and behave. Humans are treated as information processors (computers) and behaviour is explained in terms of informational processing.
                                                                                          1. The brain is described as a processor, it has a data input and a data output. Some parts of the brain form networks. Some parts can work sequentially .
                                                                                            1. Data input → processing → data output. Senses → brain processing → behaviour.
                                                                                            2. ADV: considers mental processes which are often overlooked in other approaches. It has had a big influence on the development of therapies, e.g CBT. DISAD: Research is often carried out in artificial situations and the role of emotion and influence from other people is often ignored. Cognitive psychology fails to take individual differences into account by assuming that all of us process things in the same way
                                                                                            3. Behavioural approach
                                                                                              1. Only interested in behaviour that can be observed and measured. All behaviour is learnt from experience.. The same laws apply to human and non-human animal behaviour. We are born as a 'blank slate' there is no genetic influence on behaviour.
                                                                                                1. Classical conditioning
                                                                                                  1. learning new behaviour through association between two stimuli.
                                                                                                    1. Pavlov- formulated classical conditioning when studying dogs. The salivatory reflex is a response which occurs automatically when food is placed on the dogs tongue. He noticed that dogs salivated in response to anything associated to feeding (bowl etc.). By ringing a bell prior to feeding pavlov could condition the dogs to salivate just in response to the bell.
                                                                                                      1. UCS = UCR. UCS + NS = UCR. CS= CR.
                                                                                                        1. Generalisation- The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original is presented.
                                                                                                          1. Extinction- A conditioned response dies out.
                                                                                                            1. Spontaneous recovery- A conditioned response that had disappeared suddenly appears again.
                                                                                                              1. Discrimination- The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented.
                                                                                                              2. Operant conditioning
                                                                                                                1. Behaviour is learnt and shaped through reinforcement and punishment.
                                                                                                                  1. Positive reinforcement- When something desirable is obtained in response to doing something (a reward) e.g food. This increases the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated.
                                                                                                                    1. Negative reinforcement- When something undesirable is removed when something happens, e.g getting no more homework if you pass your test.
                                                                                                                      1. Skinner- designed an experiment to demonstrate the principles of operant conditioning. A rat or pigeon was placed in a box. Positive reinforcement was shown by receiving a food pellet when a button was pressed. Negative reinforcement was shown by turning off the electrically charged floor when a lever was pressed. Punishment was shown by issuing a shock when a button was pressed.
                                                                                                                        1. Thorndike- Designed the Puzzle box. A cat was but into a box and had to hit a latch and pull a string in order to be let out and receive food. After several times of being put in the box, the cat got out quickly.
                                                                                                                        2. Social learning theory
                                                                                                                          1. Suggests we learn by observing a model, imitating their behaviour, motivated by the hope of gaining some kind of reward. Vicarious reinforcement is that we are more likely to copy a model if we see them being praised for doing something, and we are less likely to copy them if we see them being punished for doing something.
                                                                                                                            1. Meditating processes: ATTENTION- the observer must watch the behaviour being modelled. RETENTION- The behaviour must be remembered. REPRODUCTION- The observer has to be physically and mentally able to reproduce the behaviour. MOTIVATION- The observer must want to imitate the behaviour.
                                                                                                                              1. Bandura- 72 children between 3-5 years old were taken into a room and saw an adult interact with toys, one of which was an inflatable 'Bobo doll'. Half of the children saw the adult playing aggressively and hitting the doll; and the other half saw a non-aggressive adult. The groups were further divided into gender. The children were then left alone with the doll and observed for 20 mins. Children imitated what they saw, especially when it was the same sex. The children who saw aggression were aggressive to the doll.
                                                                                                                                1. Children are more likely to imitate the behaviour of people whom they identify with. Such role models are similar to the observer, tend to be attractive, of the same gender, and have high status.
                                                                                                                              2. Humanistic
                                                                                                                                1. Understanding behaviour in a way that emphasises the importance of subjective experience and each person's capacity for self-determination
                                                                                                                                  1. Assumptions- Humans are self-determining (free will). We are all unique. People should be viewed holistically, Scientific methods are not appropriate . Personal growth is an essential part of being human. Focus is on the concept of 'self'.
                                                                                                                                    1. Rogers discussed the concept of personal growth which is concerned with moving towards becoming fulfilled and goal-orientated. He argued that, in order to achieve personal growth, there must be congruence between our actual self and our ideal self.
                                                                                                                                      1. Rogers developed a therapy known as client-centred therapy to help those people who have too much incongruence.
                                                                                                                                        1. Rogers believed that people could only fulfill their potential if they have positive self regard. This can only happen when they have the unconditional positive regard of others- they feel they are valued and respected without reservation by those around them. The problem some people have is they feel they will only be loved if they meet certain conditions of worth (exam grades etc.)
                                                                                                                                        2. Maslow acknowledged that people have a variety of needs that differ in immediacy and which need satisfying at different times. He arranged these into a hierarchy. Those who satisfy all their needs might become self-actualisers. He believed that prolonged periods where a particular need was not satisfied could result in a sort of fixation.
                                                                                                                                          1. Qualitative methods are preferred, particularly unstructured interviews. Believed that reducing peoples experience to numbers robs it of its richness and meaning.
                                                                                                                                            1. ADV: Not reductionist- advocates holism. Positive approach, 'brings the person back to psychology'. DISAD: Limited application- lacks evidence-base, abstract concepts.
                                                                                                                                              1. Congruence- The aim of Rogerian therapy- when the self-concept and ideal self are seen to boradly accord or match.
                                                                                                                                              2. Psychodynamic
                                                                                                                                                1. Assumptions- Behaviour is driven by unconscious motives. Childhood is critical period in development. Mental disorders can arise from unresoived, unconscious conflicts originating in childhood.
                                                                                                                                                  1. ID- based on pleasure principle. First to develop. Drives and desires. Unconscious. Present at birth.
                                                                                                                                                    1. If the ID becomes dominant, this results in an individual being pleasure seeking and irrational.
                                                                                                                                                    2. EGO- Conscious part. Based on reality principle. Reduces conflict between the demands of the ID and superego. Produces defence mechanisms. Develops at 3.
                                                                                                                                                      1. Superego- based on our morality principle. Relates to our conscious, mostly unconscious. Develops at 5 (phallic stage).
                                                                                                                                                        1. If the superego becomes dominant, this results in an individual feeling excessive quilt.
                                                                                                                                                        2. Defence mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                          1. Denial- Refusing to acknowledge some aspect of reality.
                                                                                                                                                            1. Repression- Anxiety-provoking thoughts are places in the unconscious. Can surface in dreams to prevent their build-up.
                                                                                                                                                              1. Displacement- Displacing unacceptable feelings on to something or someone else. May result in prejudice.
                                                                                                                                                              2. Psychosexual stages
                                                                                                                                                                1. Oral- 0-18mths: Main source of pleasure is the mouth. Fixations caused by under or over breast feeding. Issues with trust and dominance.. Smoking, biting nails, chewing.
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Anal- 18-36mths: Pleasure from expelling and/or withholding faeces. Fixations caused by toilet training. issues with being orderly, rigid and hating waste. Or generous, thoughtless, messy.
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Phallic- 3-6 yrs: Children focus on their genitals and on opposite gender parent. Fixations caused by lack of identification. Problems with, vanity, impulsiveness. Can cause homosexuality or authority problems.
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Latency- 5-7yrs: Little development takes place. Desires and conflicts are repressed.
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Genital- puberty: main source of pleasure is the genitals, focus of development on independence. If some issues remain unresolved, the individual can't shift focus from immediate needs to larger responsibilities.
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Little Hans: 5 year old boy with a phobia of horses after seeing one collapse in the street, particularly white horses with black mouths. He was afraid that they would bite him. Freud suggested that his phobia was a form of displacement in which he repressed his fear of his father (his father was white with a black moustache). He feared his father would castrate him due to experiencing the oedipus complex.
                                                                                                                                                                          1. ADV: Used to explain a wide range of phenomena including personality development, abnormal behaviour, moral development and gender. Draws attention to the connection between experiences in childhood and later development. DISAD: Case studies & untestable concepts (unfalsifiable)
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