Gas Exchange

Alex Lyes
Mind Map by Alex Lyes, updated more than 1 year ago
Alex Lyes
Created by Alex Lyes about 5 years ago
18
1

Description

A-Level Biology (Exchange and transport systems) Mind Map on Gas Exchange, created by Alex Lyes on 05/26/2016.

Resource summary

Gas Exchange
  1. Size & Surface Area
    1. Smaller animals
      1. High surface area
        1. Low volume
        2. Multicellular organisms
          1. Need exchange organs
            1. Diffusion too slow
            2. Affects heat exchange
              1. Depends on SA
                1. Small means it is harder to loose heat
                  1. Compact shape means less SA
                2. Gas Exchange
                  1. Fish
                    1. Counter-current
                      1. Water & blood flow in different directions
                        1. Maximises gas exchange
                          1. Concentration of oxygen in water always higher than blood
                      2. Filaments
                        1. Increase SA
                        2. Lamellae at right angle to filaments
                        3. Insects
                          1. Tracheae
                            1. Spiricles
                              1. Pores on surface
                                1. Oxygen travels down concentration gradient
                              2. Humans
                                1. Lungs
                                  1. Trachea
                                    1. C-shaped cartilidge
                                      1. Supports and stops collapsing
                                    2. Bronchi
                                      1. Bronchioles
                                        1. Alveoli
                                          1. Thin exchange surface
                                            1. Short diffusion pathway
                                              1. Speeds up rate
                                              2. Large SA
                                                1. Large number of alveoli
                                                2. Surrounded by capillaries
                                                  1. Maintains concentration gradient
                                              3. Inhalation
                                                1. Internal relax
                                                  1. External contract
                                                    1. Diaphragm contracts
                                                      1. Flattens
                                                    2. Exhalation
                                                      1. External relax
                                                        1. Internal contract
                                                          1. Diaphragm relax
                                                      2. Effects of lung disease
                                                        1. TB
                                                          1. Reduces tidal volume
                                                            1. Gas exchange surface damaged
                                                            2. Can cause fibrosis
                                                            3. Fibrosis
                                                              1. Formation of scar tissue
                                                                1. Less recoil
                                                                  1. Reduced FEV
                                                                2. Asthma
                                                                  1. Inflamed airways
                                                                    1. Large amounts of mucus
                                                                      1. FEV reduced
                                                                      2. Emphysema
                                                                        1. Inflammation
                                                                          1. Break down of elastin
                                                                            1. Less recoil
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