Psychological Research

Margaux Sullivan
Mind Map by , created over 3 years ago

IB Psych HL Chapter 1: look at research methods/problems/types

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Margaux Sullivan
Created by Margaux Sullivan over 3 years ago
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1 Types of Experiments
1.1 laboratory experiments

Annotations:

  • all variables can be controlled low ecological validity
1.2 field experiments

Annotations:

  • natural environment but variables can still be manipulated slightly impacted ecological validity
1.3 natural experiments

Annotations:

  • researchers have no control over variables naturally occurring events
2 Ethics
2.1 informed consent
2.2 deception
2.3 debriefing
2.4 withdrawal
2.5 confidentiality
2.6 protection from harm
3 Research Process
3.1 aim

Annotations:

  • purpose of the study
3.2 target population

Annotations:

  • intended audience of study
3.2.1 sample

Annotations:

  • nature of a group of participants
3.2.1.1 representative sample

Annotations:

  • reflects the population
3.2.1.2 opportunity sampling

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  • sample of whoever happens to be there and agrees to partcipate
3.2.1.3 self-selected sample

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  • made up of volunteers --- sample will be highly motivated, rarely reflects population
3.2.1.4 snowball sampling

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  • participants recruit other participants from among friends/family/acquaintances --- helps reach a specific group of people (e.g. drug users)
3.2.1.5 random sampling

Annotations:

  • every member of target population has equal chance of being selected --- obtain representative sample, gets rid of selection bias
3.2.1.6 stratified sample

Annotations:

  • attempts to overcome representative sample problem by drawing random samples from each subpopulation within the target population --- more accurately reflects actual distribution of population
3.3 procedure

Annotations:

  • step-by-step process used to carry out the study
3.4 findings

Annotations:

  • state how researcher interpreted the data that were collected
3.4.1 application

Annotations:

  • how a theory or empirical study is used
3.5 variables

Annotations:

  • independent variable - what is being deliberately manipulated dependent variable - what is affected by the change in independent variable constant - what is kept the same to limit outside factors, (control confounding variables)
3.5.1 experimental hypothesis

Annotations:

  • predicts relationship between IV and DV
3.5.2 null hypothesis

Annotations:

  • predicts that there will be not results (or results from chance) due to change in IV
4 Textbook examples
4.1 Carol Dweck - implicit theories of intelligence

Annotations:

  • people with fixed mindset = intelligence is static  ---- entity theory of intelligencepeople with growth mindset = intelligence is not fixed (can be developed)----- incremental theory of intelligence*shows importance of mindset when explaining success*
4.2 Bandura's Self-Efficacy

Annotations:

  • self-efficacy - one's own belief as to whether one will success in something (based on previous experiences) *helps explain success based on individual experiences*
4.3 Rosenthal and Jacobson 1968 - Pygmalion effect

Annotations:

  • shows how expectations of teachers affects the learning of students
5 PROBLEMS
5.1 sampling bias

Annotations:

  • findings can't be generalized to the entire population
5.2 participant variability

Annotations:

  • extent to which participants share common set of traits that can bias the outcome of the study --- characteristics of sample affect the dependent variable
5.3 validity
5.3.1 ecological validity

Annotations:

  • does the study represent what happens in real life --- artificiality
5.3.2 cross-cultural validity

Annotations:

  • is it relevant to multiple cultures or is it ethnocentric
5.4 reliability

Annotations:

  • can the study be replicated?
5.5 Hawthorne effect

Annotations:

  • participants act differently to fit the study --- use single-blind control: participants don't know what the study is about
5.6 researcher bias

Annotations:

  • researcher sees what they are looking for  --- use double blind control : neither participants nor conductor of study knows the aim of the study

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