Criminology

lopezkar
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

SOC Midterm Study Web

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lopezkar
Created by lopezkar over 5 years ago
Social Conflict Theory
Wendy Frogley
CJ review
Celeste_Unwritten
Positivism
Grace Feakes
FCE Practice Fill In The Blank
Christine Sang
Teaching Methods Every Educator Should Know
Micheal Heffernan
Pickel (1998)
aidenwh
Self-report Studies
Mirjana Gavrilović Nilsson
Evaluation: Psychological Formulation
Katie Greensted
Topic 9 - Control, Punishment and Victims
evie.challis
Criminology
Wendy Frogley
Criminology

Annotations:

  • The sociological study of crime, criminality and victimization
1 What does it study?

Annotations:

  • There are 3 subfields or focuses
1.1 Crime as a fascination or mode of entertainment

Annotations:

  • MASS MEDIA! "if it bleeds, it leads" Crime coverage in novels, tv, movies, news, games, crime dramas...1/3 total TV time is devoted to Crime (Ch. 1 p9)
1.2 Our everyday life knowledge of crime

Annotations:

  • We THINK we know all these "facts" about crime based on what we see in the MASS MEDIA these "facts" or what we think we know informs our actions (on an individual level and policies) We think we know what to do about crime
1.3 "Fear of Crime"

Annotations:

  • Occasionally, the mass media will channel viewer attention toward specific criminal behavior and cause moral panics
1.3.1 Misplaced Fear

Annotations:

  • We have the idea of a "typical criminal" which is a specific image of who is a criminal--> the BLACK DEMON (young, impoverished, inner city, black male) In reality the real criminal is the middle-aged, white, middle-class business man --> WHITE COLLAR CRIME
1.3.2 Resource

Annotations:

  • 1. As fear of crime increases calls for harsher punishments increase 2. As fear of crime increases we are more likely to agree to more survellance ex. Patriot Act 3. "tough on crime" campaign tactic ex. Ducacis vs. Bush 4. Distraction- when another social problem is occurring (unemployment rates up, policy confusion, political scandal) fear of crime can be used to distract5. Scapegoat- we can blame all sorts of issues on crime or criminal group "dangerous class"!
1.3.3 Distortion by Media

Annotations:

  • Most Americans wrongly think crime is increasing because we see so much of it on the news Certain types of crimes are over-represented so we think they occur frequently ex. street crime, violent crime, inter-racial victimizations, blacks and hispanics criminals REALITY: Most crime is white collar crime, most street crime is INTRA-racial, blacks and hispanics are not the most common criminal
1.3.4 Patterned Phenomenon

Annotations:

  • The # hours TV we watch affects our FOC The % of blacks in neighborhood increases, so does FOC FOC is highest among certain groups (women, youth, elderly, racial minorities) but they are least likely to be affected If FOC increases, community solidarity decreases
2 Crime is Socially Constructed

Annotations:

  • It is a product of human endeavor= we made it up! It is a social Process-->which means that crime is socially relative-->which means that crime is socially produced-->which means that crime waves are social constructs
2.1 Crime is socially relative (3 dimensions)
2.1.1 History

Annotations:

  • (time)  ex. Slavery at one point in history was not considered a crime though today it is
2.1.2 Cross-Cultural Variation

Annotations:

  • (space)  In some parts of the world, honor killings are considered tradition for women who disgrace the family but this is considered a crime in America
2.1.3 Intra-social/ Political

Annotations:

  • (space) differences of power ex. Smoking weed on the corner of an Ann Arbor city block is no big deal, but step over the line to campus and you're committing a serious crime
2.2 Why this matters
2.2.1 Social Problems

Annotations:

  • Social Problems are "concerns" NOT conditions they are socially produced through a process--> we need to be focusing on how and why particular conditions come to be constructed as social problems Social Problems need at least 2 things 1) FACTS (conditions) 2) INTERPRETATION (subjective interpretations)
2.2.2 Crime Waves

Annotations:

  • We have crime waves when crime is actually decreasing, why? We have drug scares when drugs use is no more prevalent than before, why? Because crime is SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED
2.3 How we DEFINE crime leads to what "counts" as crime

Annotations:

  • 2 paradigms to construct crime
2.3.1 Legalistic

Annotations:

  • crime is that which is against the law this is the limited approach, not related to what we think "ought" to count, but related to power clear, reliable, narrow
2.3.1.1 *Culpability (Blame Worthiness)
2.3.1.1.1 Mens Rea

Annotations:

  • criminal intent/mind awareness of the act hinges on the assumption of "free will" (notice the classical theory still impacting our policies today)
2.3.1.1.1.1 Negations of our /Mens Rea/
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 Entrapment
2.3.1.1.1.1.2 insanity defense

Annotations:

  • If we do not have full mental capacity we don't have full feee will (see how this is a result of the classical theory, and the neoclassical revisions) grossly misrepresented by the media only 10% of cases raise this defense, 2% successful DOES NOT MEAN GET OFF CLEAN
2.3.1.1.1.1.3 Defenses of justification
2.3.1.1.1.1.3.1 1) Duress

Annotations:

  • Protecting self from serious threat or harm ex. killing someone in self defense
2.3.1.1.1.1.3.2 2) Necessity

Annotations:

  • No other reasonable action could have been taken Ex. Stealing food during a natural disaster to feed your starving children
2.3.1.1.1.1.3.3 3) Duty

Annotations:

  • Justified in the line of duty Ex. A marine killing someone in war could be "justifiable"
2.3.1.1.2 Actus Reus

Annotations:

  • The wrongful act or omission that is required to establish liability voluntary action or failure to act omission of action where there is a duty
2.3.1.1.2.1 Ex. Parents have a duty to protect their children
2.3.1.1.3 Strict Liability

Annotations:

  • Regardless of intent  Ex. statutory rape
2.3.1.1.4 Status Offense

Annotations:

  • Offenses only applicable to a specific group of people  Ex. juvenile offenses drinking age law, curfew laws
2.3.1.2 Civil Law

Annotations:

  • Contract Law Tort-private Wrong *white color crime is most likely to fall under civil law  PUNISHMENT: employment applications usually don't ask about civil offenses Liberty is not at risk no implications for formal rights
2.3.1.3 Criminal Law

Annotations:

  • SOURCES OF CRIMINAL LAW:  1) Statutory- enacted by legislature2) "case" law- /stare decisis/ --> precedent: a law previously decided by a case so that similar cases are also decided in that way
2.3.1.3.1 Punitive (punishment) and Public
2.3.1.3.2 Consequences of lost liberty

Annotations:

  • imprisonment Jail <1 year Prison >1 year
2.3.1.3.3 Consequences of Public Record

Annotations:

  • Might lose the right to vote Lose right to student aid Loss of formal rights Employment app box
2.3.2 Sociological

Annotations:

  • violation of conduct norms human rights social harm analogous injury BROADER--> includes more phenomena goes beyond legally defines, broad
2.3.2.1 Ex. Katrina

Annotations:

  • People died because the government didn't pay for people to be evacuated. We think this "ought" to be a crime, but legally it was not
2.3.2.2 Ex. Surgeon Killing

Annotations:

  • A doctor killing someone in surgery is analogous to murder but in most cases is not considered such

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