Child Development

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Masters Optometry in Special Needs Groups Mind Map on Child Development, created by angela.bauer on 02/24/2014.

Created by angela.bauer over 5 years ago
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Child Development
1 Domains of Development
1.1 Motor
1.1.1 Physical growth is important for normal motor development Infant motor control can be limited by physical development Requires CNS and musculo-skeletal maturation
1.1.2 Two areas to motor control Large, gross motor control Small, fine motor control
1.1.3 Relationship to vision Visual Spatial Skills Safe efficient movement through space Visual Motor Skills (Hand-Eye Coordination) Handwriting, Sports, Musical Instruments
1.2 Cognitive (Piaget's theory of cognitive development)
1.2.1 Sensorimotor (0-2years): If a child is not interacting with an object it does not exist "out of sight, out of mind"
1.2.2 Pre-operational (2-7 years): learn concepts of space, time and conservation
1.2.3 Concrete Operational (7-11 years): logical thinking, gain ability to see through perspective other than own
1.2.4 Formal operational (from 12years): abstract thought
1.2.5 Relationship to Vision Vision provides sensory and perceptual input necessary for cognitive development
1.3 Language
1.3.1 Vision underlies second language code, reading and writing
1.4 Emotional
1.4.1 Relationship to vision Tics can develop at 6-7 years, caused by anxiety. Common PC, will disappear if ignored
2 Visual Development
2.1 Eye Movements
2.1.1 Fixation Faces: at birth objects: at 3 months
2.1.2 Conjugate eye movements Saccades Horizontal at birth Vertical at 3 months Smooth Pursuits Horizontal at birth Vertical at 3 months OKN and VOR present at birth
2.1.3 Near triad Pupil: at birth Accommodation: 3-4 months Vergence: 3 months Fusional Vergence: 6 months
2.2 Refractive error development
2.2.1 Emmetropisation Newborns: +2.00D 6-8years: +1.00D
2.2.2 Astigmatsim Reduces in first 5 years even if corrected
2.3 Visual Function
2.3.1 Visual Acuity at birth: 6/180 3 mon: 6/60 12 mon: 6/15 4-5 yrs: 6/6 Difference in acuities may be more important
2.3.2 Fusion Develops at 3 months
2.3.3 Stereopsis develops 4-7 months
3 What is development?
3.1 Physical, cognitive and psycho-social changes that occur from conception to adulthood
3.2 Normal Development: typical changes that are shared by almost all children over time
3.3 Development of most characteristics occur in a predictable sequence, but rate of development is unique to each child
3.4 Global and domain specific development
3.4.1 Allows for delay in general development or in specific skills
4 Hereditary vs Environmental
4.1 Hereditary: sets limits and determines developmental framework
4.2 Environmental:provides the setting which allows or does not allow development to reach full potential
4.3 Mixture of both
5 Overall
5.1 Understanding what is expected and what isn't can help appropriately manage young patients
5.2 Approach varies with age, also among same chronological age

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