1. The Real world exists outside of human experience.
2. Science is value free.
3. Theories are tested using reliable/objective methods to produce observable data.
4. The mind is a convenient fiction.
e.g. Kimble, 1989
e.g. Radical Behaviourism
22.214.171.124 Karl Popper 1902-1994
126.96.36.199.1 "No, science exists outside of our culture"
model (The logic of
Scientific Discovery, 1934)
1.2 Inductive Reasoning
1. No objective truth, only applied aims.
2. Science: Western Male Values.
3. Theories: Lay or Scientific - described in terms of their political and social implications.
4. The mind is a convenient fiction. Behavior is a function of language and the social collective (e.g. Discursive Analysis).
e.g. Gergen, 2001; Reiger, 1992
1.3.1 Thomas Kuhn (The structure of scientific
A More Realistic, contextual approach:
1. There are paradigms
2. Paradigms shift
3. Different people in different theoretical 'camps' talk passed each other (rival paradigms are incommensurable).
188.8.131.52 "Science is embedded in our culture"
1.4 Realist Model of Science
Important feature: Everyone is their own psychologist, with their own theories, and these theories strongly influence behavior.
2.1 Types of Hypotheses
2.1.1 Null Hypothesis
184.108.40.206 Level of Statistical Significance
220.127.116.11 Effect Size
18.104.22.168 Sample Size
2.2.4 Within or Between Subjects
I had a question from a
student about big Q and small q qualitative research that I mentioned in the
last lecture. The term Qualitative research is ambiguous. Small q research
studies what people say in a qualitative fashion, but in the wider context of
quantitative work adopting a mainstream perspective. For an example see Study 1
of the handout we will be using later on in the semester (Fletcher et al., 1999; Ideals in Intimate
Relationships). Big Q research (as I call it) also studies scripts or verbal
exchanges, but from within a postmodernist or social constructionist framework,
which typically excludes the kind of quantitative analysis found in mainstream
psychology and interprets the results according to a relativist, postmodernist
3 Why Do We Science?
3.1 The Critical Evaluation of Research
3.1.1 Writing a Report
22.214.171.124 The Method Section
Anyone reading the method section should be able to replicate the stud based on what was read.
126.96.36.199.1 The Intro
188.8.131.52.2 What are the:
184.108.40.206.2.1 Independent Variables Manipulated
220.127.116.11.2.1.1 Factors and Levels
18.104.22.168.2.2 Dependent Variables Measured
22.214.171.124.2.3 Threats to Internal Validity/Construct Validity
Construct Validity: Do the operational variables in this section correspond to the conceptual variables in the introduction?