Life Changes

danny-hudson97
Mind Map by danny-hudson97, updated more than 1 year ago
danny-hudson97
Created by danny-hudson97 almost 6 years ago
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A Levels Psychology (Unit 2 - Stress) Mind Map on Life Changes, created by danny-hudson97 on 03/04/2014.
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Life Changes
1 Holmes and Rahe (1967)
1.1 Two hospital doctors who noticed that many of the patients that they visited on their rounds had suffered life events causing disruption to their lives in the previous year.
1.1.1 They decided to construct a questionnaire to examine the possible link between life changing events and physical ill-health.
1.2 Method
1.2.1 1) They examined the medical records of over 5000 patients and compiled a list of 43 life events
1.2.1.1 2) They rated these in order of the time it would take to get your life back to some semblance of normality following the event
1.2.1.1.1 3) They gave ‘marriage’ an arbitrary score of 500 and got others to rate the other events in comparison to this.
1.2.1.1.1.1 4) They averaged out the scores and divided them by 10, so in the final scale ‘marriage’ has a score of 50.
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 5) The scale starts at 100 LCUs (Life Change Units) for ‘death of a spouse and ends with 11 LCUs for ‘minor violation of the law.’
1.3 The scale was tested on different groups of people to determine its relevance. Patients would add up the score for each life event and this would be their total LCU. They believed that a score of over 300 meant an 80% chance of developing a serious physical illness in the following year.
2 Changes in a persons life that require a significant adjustment in various aspects of that persons life
3 Examples Of Life Changes
3.1 Divorce
3.2 Death of spouse
3.3 Holiday
3.4 Marriage
3.5 Pregnancy
4 Rahe et al (1970) tested 2700 naval personnel on board three American cruisers just before they set sail. During their seven months tour of duty the sailors kept health records.
4.1 A correlation of +0.118 was found between LCUs and ill-health. This is relatively low; however, because of the size of the sample (2700) it is statistically significant.
4.1.1 The SRRS contains potentially positive life events such as Christmas, holidays and change in personal finances (which could be positive as well as negative, It therefore seems fair to assume that what the SRRS is measuring is change in a person’s life that is leading to stress.
5 Michael and Ben Zur (2007)
5.1 They looked at 130 people who had recently divorced or been widowed.
5.1.1 Levels of ‘life satisfaction’ had not surprisingly dipped following death of the spouse in the widowed group.
5.1.1.1 However, in the divorced group the opposite was recorded with people reporting an increase in ‘life satisfaction.’ This would seem to support the idea that the scale is measuring change rather than negative issues following life events.
6 Evaluation Of SRRS
6.1 Individual differences
6.1.1 The life events in the list will have different meaning and cause different amounts of disruption to different people. For example the effects of divorce will depend on how long the couple have been married
6.2 Cause and effect
6.2.1 The scale implies a correlation between stress and ill-health, however, as I’m sure you must have realised by now correlations do not prove cause and effect. All manner of other reasons could be used to explain the link. Ill-health could be causing the stress, or the life events. For example a heart attack could cause loss of job,
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