Keeping Healthy

harry.ward
Mind Map by harry.ward, updated more than 1 year ago
harry.ward
Created by harry.ward almost 6 years ago
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Not everything is on this mind map. This mind map is for my understanding, apologise for this. please leave comments on what you think about it.
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Keeping Healthy
1 Diet and Exercise
1.1 most people eat a varied diet which includes everything needed to keep your body healthy
1.2 different people need different amount of energy
1.3 the metabolic rate varies from person to person
1.3.1 metabolic rate refers to the chemical reaction in you cells
1.4 the more exercise you take the more food you need
2 Weight problems
2.1 if you take in more energy you need it will be stored as excess fat
2.2 obese people have more health problems than others
2.3 people that do not eat enough can also develop serious health problems
2.4 exercise helps reduce weight and to maintain health
3 inheritance, exercise and health
3.1 inherited factors affect out health. these include our metabolic rate and cholesterol levels
3.2 people who exercise are usually much healthier then people who don't
4 Pathogens and disease
4.1 infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms called pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses
4.2 bacteria and viruses reproduce rapidly inside your body. bacteria can produce toxins which make you ill
4.3 viruses damage your cells as they produce. this can also make us feel ill
4.4 semmelweis recognised the importance of washing your hands in hospitals because that prevented the spreading of disease
5 Defence mechanisms
5.1 your body has several methods of defending itself against the entry of pathogens using skin, the mucus of the breathing system and the clotting of the blood
5.2 your white blood cells help you defend against pathogens trying to enter the body. this happens by white blood cells ingesting them and making antibodies and antitoxins
6 using drugs to treat disease
6.1 some medicines relive the symptons of the disease but not kill the disease which caused it
6.2 antibiotics cure bacterial by disease killing the bacteria in your body
6.3 antibiotics do not destroy viruses because viruses reproduce inside the cells. it is difficult to develop drugs that can not be destroy viruses without damaging your body cells
7 growing and investigating bacteria
7.1 an uncontaminated culture of microorganism can be grown using sterilised petri dishes and agar. you sterilise the inoculation loop before use and seal lid of petri dish to prevent unwanted microorganism getting in
8 changing pathogens
8.1 many types of bacterium have developed antibiotic resistance as a result of natural selection. to prevent the problem getting worse we must not overuse antibiotics
8.2 if bacteria or viruses mutate, new strains of the pathogens can appear causing disease
8.3 new strains of disease which spread rapidly can cause epidemics and pandemics. antibiotics and vaccinations may not be effective against the new strain
9 immunity
9.1 your white blood cells produce antibodies to destroy the pathogens. then your body will respond rapidly to future infections by the same pathogen, by making the correct antibody. you become immune to the disease
9.2 we can use vaccinations to protect against both bacterial and viral pathogens
9.3 you can be immunised against disease by introducing small amounts of dead or inactive pathogens into your body
10 how to deal with disease
10.1 vaccinations protects individuals and society from the effects of a disease
10.2 the treatment of disease has changed as our understanding of how antibiotics and immunity has increased
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