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Mind Map on G4: Food, created by 119ember on 03/11/2014.

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119ember
Created by 119ember over 5 years ago
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G4: Food
1 1.1: What is the global pattern of food consumption?
1.1 Food distribution is unbalanced around the world. In 2006 around 850 million people lived with food insecurity.
1.1.1 In 2008, as the food resource decreased the demand for it increased which increased the food prices which led to famine
1.1.2 A greater % of the population in every part of the world now are richer and therefore the demand for meat produce which then increases prices.
1.1.3 96% of hungry people are found in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia.
1.2 The Millennium Development Goals aim to halve the number of people experiencing food insecurity by 2015
1.3 Under-nutrition
1.3.1 In 2010, 950 million people did not get sufficient calories to lead active and healthy lifestyles. Consumption of calories was below 2000 per day which is the advised amount
1.3.2 Direct Economic Causes: Poverty, landlessness, food supply from impacted production, food hoarding, poor infrastructure, storage and inappropriate aid.
1.3.3 Direct Social Causes: population growth, poor health, and reduced labour (due to diseases such as HIV), deliberate food destruction in wars and gender inequality
1.3.4 Direct Environmental Causes: Natural disasters of drought, desertification, flooding, pests, overcropping and overgrazing, development of biofuels and cash cropping
1.3.5 Kenya Case Study
1.4 Over-nourishment
1.4.1 According to the WHO overweight occurs when the BMI is more than 25 and obesity occurs when it is more than 30
1.4.2 1.6 billion adults are overweight (25% of the world) and over 400 million adults are classified as obese. By 2015, 40% of the population will be overweight and 750 million obese.
1.4.2.1 In the USA, 35% of the children are clinically obese. In Asian countries such as China this is also becoming a problem due to a transitioning to a more western-style diet.
1.4.3 The major health consequences of over-nutrition are chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis and some cancers
1.4.4 Obesity in America
1.4.4.1 100 million people are overweight; more than 60% of them are adults; Mississippi classed as the fattest state as 1 in 4 are overweight; 400,000 deaths due to obesity
1.4.4.2 Causes are: Eating too many calories than what is needed to convert to energy; growth of fast food chains, which offer food that are high calorific and rich in fat; high soft drink consumption; lack or limited exercise; sedentary lifestyle
1.5 More and more food is being imported from different parts of the world, this then leads to high carbon footprint.
2 1.2 What factors promote or hinder food production?
2.1 Malthus' and Boserup's Theory on Food Production.
2.1.1 Malthus argued that food shortages, in particular, were inevitable as population grew because population grows exponentially, where food can only grow arithmetically (2,3,4,5...). Therefore, population would soon outstrip available food.
2.1.2 Boserup's Theory states that an increase in population stimulates an improvement in agricultural techniques thus increasing food supply. This demand for food due to increasing population means that food production is stimulated either by finding new ways to grow food or by importing from other countries.
2.2 EU common agriculture project supports farmers.
2.2.1 Phase 2: hinders food production due to quotas, set aside (take-land out of production (10%)). Margins and boundaries are implemented to increase biodiversity
2.2.2 Phase 3: increasing awareness, 'Agri-environment' schemes, diversification to increases the diversity of species
2.2.3 Phase 4 or Agenda 2000: price cuts fro produce, meat -30%, milk -20%, grants increased for 'Agri-environment' schemes
2.3 Soil Erosion in Zimbabwe
2.3.1 Soil erosion is the detachment of soil particles from larger aggregates and the removal of the particles by flowing water and wind. In the country fluvial erosion is common
2.3.2 The rate of soil erosion on crop lands and grazing areas are 5 tonnes/ha/year.
2.3.2.1 Declines in crop yields and very high rates of silt in reservoirs, especially in small dams for rural water supplis
2.4 Economic factors that promote or hinder
2.4.1 Large supermarkets put a lot of demand on farmers. The farmers often pay for food packaging which hinders production as they have less money to spend. A government legislation could solve this by outlining the correct guidelines for producing and selling
2.5 Political factors
2.5.1 Pre 1949 food industry: Most of the of the farming were labour intensive. The majority of the land is arable
2.5.2 People's commune, 1958: Land from the rich were divided and given to the poor. The lands were too small for the farmers and crops grown were insufficient. Ways this was improved: Trained workers to use new technology and machinery, use of agrochemicals
2.5.3 Responsibility System in China (1979): Farmers were given rent free land fro 30 yrs to grow their crops. The farmers had to meet a crop quota. The left-over can be sold at their prices in markets. They were given seeds and tools; less pressure and the farmers put more work to pass their quota to earn extra money. Yield increased to 6%
3 1.3 Can food production be sustainably increased?
3.1 3 biillion tonnes of food will be required annually by 2020, compared to the 1.9 b tonnes in 1996. The average global cereal yield has to increase to 4 tonnes/ha. The use of artificial fertilisers will double to 170m tonnes/yr
3.2 Ways to increase food production: Use more high yielding seeds; irrigation of dry areas; terracing of steep slopes; land reclamation; better harvesting and storage; vegetarian diet
3.2.1 Developed countries: Green revolution; land reform; appropriate technology; cooperation; improved infrastructure; better credit; govt. intervention
3.3 Hydroponics: is the process of growing plants in a solution of nutrients that are essential rather than directly in soil
3.3.1 Advantages
3.3.1.1 It uses minimal water; pest or parasites are filtered out of the air used; all year plant growth due to controlled environment; nutrients are readily available to the plants; eliminates pesticide costs; the nutrition given to plants are controlled; eliminates toxic chemical usage so groundwater is not affected.
3.3.2 Disadvantages
3.3.2.1 Some species of crops get water logged; the cost of initial investment is too high; many poorer farmers cannot afford this; water-borne diseases can destroy the whole crop; technical knowledge is needed; product can have a different taste; heated greenhouses and light is wasteful
3.3.3 Thanet Earth, Kent: 7 greenhouses, almost 400,000 plants; tomatoes all year round; 700,000 cucumbers produced from feb- nov; water recycled; food miles are reduced which decreases CO2 emissions; 500+ jobs created
3.4 Aeroponics: is the process of growing crops suspended in the air and spraying it with nutrients and water.
3.4.1 Advantages: ideal for water-deprived countries; more corps per area of space; plants arent exposed to bacteria or diseases; crops mature faster; 65% less water compared to hydroponics; uses less energy.
3.4.2 Disadvantages: Capital is needed to set up at the start; high maintenance; machine- intensive, constant regulation
3.4.3 Aero- Green, Singapore: 5.3 hectare farm; produces cleaner vegetables
3.5 Blue Revolution
3.5.1 Advantages: increase fish consumption from 4% in 1970 to 50%' decreases pressure on wildfish stocks; has less environmental impacts like ocean trawling; 60 m tonnes of fish is now bred in comparison to 1 m tonnes in the 1950s
3.5.2 Disadvantages: wild fish industry has declined which led to loss of jobs; generates the same problem as intensive farming; natural habitats such as mangroves are destroyed to farm shrimps; a lot of wild fish is caught to feed for carnivorous fishes; water is contaminated with feedstuffs.
3.6 The Gene Revolution: is the modification of the DNA of plants to make them better suited to grow in different conditions. Crops that tolerate herbicides, crops that produce a toxin that kills pests
3.6.1 Advantages: decrease the usage of chemicals so soils become less contaminated, lower runoff to nearby rivers; disease resistance; crops can withstand environmental stresses; extra nutrients can be added; modified to produce vaccines and other medicines; higher yield so less land is turned to farmland.
3.6.2 Disadvantages: concerns whether it is safe to eat or not; contamination of neighbouring organic crops which can create mutation of the plant, lead to superweeds; GM crops are available to large-scale farmers; crops from developing countries are left out
3.6.3 Argentina: Soya bean production has lead to decrease use of herbicides which has lead to development of herbicide resistant weeds. Resistant insects has also emerged. This has threatened the biodiversity of the country. The food production has turned into mono-culture so in danger of a wipe-out which leads to food insecurity. Massive hunger and malnutrition as they were used to meat.
4 1.4 can a sustainable food supply be maintained in the future?
4.1 To be sustainable, the society, environment and economy should all be addressed. Society: food is produced depending on the population of a country and so this decreases waste.
4.1.1 Environmental: Eutrophication is the leeching of agro-chemical into ponds from soils this leads to growth of algae and as a results starves fish of oxygen.
4.1.2 Economic: Agricultural system to provide acceptable economic return for those employed in the production of food, yet supply sufficiently to cater to a country's non-farming population.

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