C2.1 Structures and Bonding

mhancoc3
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Chemistry (C2) Mind Map on C2.1 Structures and Bonding, created by mhancoc3 on 03/13/2014.

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mhancoc3
Created by mhancoc3 over 5 years ago
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C2.1 Structures and Bonding
1 Chemical Bonding
1.1 Atoms of 2 or more elements react = compound
1.2 Noble Gas (group 0) stable and unreactive
1.3 Sharing electrons = covalent. Transferring electrons = ionic
1.4 Losing Electrons to form positive ions
1.4.1 In ionic bonding atoms lose or gain electrons forming charged particles (ions)
1.4.1.1 Ions have structure of a noble gas (2,8/2,8,8)
1.4.2 Ions have one more proton than electron making a positively charged ion.
1.5 Gaining Electrons to form negative ions
1.5.1 Non metals with metals: non metal gains electrons to obtain noble gas structure
1.5.2 More electrons than protons, negative charged ion
1.6 Both atoms aim for a stable structure
2 Ionic Bonding
2.1 Ions are held together by strong attracting forces between oppositely charged ions. This electrostatic force of attraction is called ionic bonding
2.2 Giant structure or lattice has forces from all directions holding it in place.
2.3 When bonding you must reach no charge
3 Formulae of ionic compounds
3.1 Group 1 metals = charge 1+. Group 2 metals = charge 2+. Group 7 non metals = charge 1-. Group 6 non metals = charge 2-
3.2 Names of transition metals compounds contain charge of ions in roman numerals in brackets. Eg. iron(lll) oxide = Fe3+ ions
3.3 Some ions are made of more than 1 element (CO3)
3.4 When things are in brackets you must multiply them out as they change the ratio
4 Covalent Bonding
4.1 When non metals react they share electrons forming molecules
4.2 Simple Molecules
4.2.1 They both need to gain electrons, so they share
4.3 Giant Covalent Structures
4.3.1 Macromolecules
4.3.2 Diamond
4.3.2.1 each carbon forms 4 covalent bonds
5 Metals
5.1 Metal Crystals
5.1.1 built up in layers like a regular pattern
5.1.2 Eg. Zinc crystals on the surface of steel
5.1.3 Steel can be dipped into molten zinc to prevent rust
5.2 Metallic Bonding
5.2.1 lattice of positively charged ions
5.2.2 Regular layers
5.2.3 Outer electrons can move through the structure - delocalised electrons
5.2.3.1 No longer linked with an ion
5.2.4 Strong electrostatic attraction between positive ions and negative electrons bind it

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