Biological Molecules

Daniel Brener
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

IGCSE Edexcel Biology (Structures and functions in living organisms) Mind Map on Biological Molecules, created by Daniel Brener on 04/30/2013.

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Daniel Brener
Created by Daniel Brener over 6 years ago
Biological molecules
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1 Enzymes
2 Component of Diet: Molecules
2.1 Starch
2.1.1 made up of glucose
2.1.1.1 chemically bonded glucose hexagons
2.1.2 its a carbohydrate: made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
2.1.3 deficiency in starch causes fatigue
2.1.4 its used in respiration
2.1.5 foods which contain it are: crisps, potatoes and pasta
2.2 Glucose
2.2.1 its used in respiration
2.2.2 its a carbohydrate, so its made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
2.2.3 its found in bread and biscuits
2.2.4 deficiency can cause tirdness
2.3 Protein
2.3.1 used in growth and repair, its also used for chemical reactions
2.3.2 it can be found in egg, ham and cheese
2.3.3 deficiency can cause muscle loss, liver damage and bloating of the stomach
2.3.4 proteins are made up of amino acids
2.4 Lipid
2.4.1 made up of glycerol and fatty acids
2.4.2 stores energy
2.4.3 protects internal organs from external shocks to the body
2.4.4 protects brain and nervous system
2.5 Vitamins
2.6 Minerals
3 Food Tests
3.1 Test for Starch

Attachments:

3.1.1 1) Take a sample of the food and put it in a boiling tube
3.1.1.1 2) Add a few drops of iodine to the sample
3.1.1.1.1 3) If the sample turns backish in colour then there is starch present, if it stays iodiney colour then there is not
3.2 Test for Glucose

Attachments:

3.2.1 1) Take a sample of the food and put it in a boiling tube
3.2.1.1 2) Add a few pippets of benedicts solution to the tube containing the sample
3.2.1.1.1 3) Put the tube in a water bath at 95`C for a few minutes
3.2.1.1.1.1 4) After time is up, take out the tube
3.2.1.1.1.1.1 5) Look at the colour of the contents (see colour code on note)

Annotations:

  • If the solution is BLUE there is NO glucose If the solution is GREEN there is SOME/FAIR amount of glucoseIf the solution is YELLOW there is a HIGH amount of glucoseIf the solution is RED/ORANGE there is a VERY HIGH amount of glucose
3.3 Test for Lipids

Attachments:

3.3.1 1) Mix the sample with some ethanol to dissolve any lipid
3.3.1.1 2) Decant for filter out the ethanol into a boiling tube to remove any solids
3.3.1.1.1 3) Add some water to the boiling tube and shake. Any lipid will dissolve in the ethanol and the solution will turn milky

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