Key Approaches, The Psychodynamic Approach

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AS Levels Psychology Mind Map on Key Approaches, The Psychodynamic Approach, created by MeganAbigail on 04/30/2013.

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Key Approaches, The Psychodynamic Approach
1 Assumptions
1.1 Unconcious processes of which we are unaware determine our behaviour
1.2 Instincts, or drives motivate our behaviour and energize the mind
1.3 Childhood experiences determine adult behaviour
1.4 Personality has three parts, Id, Ego and Superego
2 The iceberg analogy
2.1 The mind is like an iceberg, with much of it (unconcious mind) laying below the surface, exerting a dynamic influence on the concious mind
3 Psychosexual stages of development
3.1 The oral stage
3.1.1 0-18 months
3.1.2 Infants pleasure centres around the mouth
3.2 The anal stage
3.2.1 18-36 months
3.2.2 The child gains pleasure from using the toilet
3.3 The phallic stage
3.3.1 3-6 years
3.3.2 Sexual instinct is focused on the genital area. Boys experience the Oedipus complex and girls the electra complex. Resolution forms gender identity
3.4 The latent Stage
3.5 The genital stage
4 Three parts of personality
4.1 Id
4.1.1 The pleasure principle. this is the selfish part of personality, where we desire instant gratification of our needs/desires
4.2 Ego
4.2.1 The reality principle. Acts as mediator between Id and Superego. Reduces conflict between the two
4.3 Superego
4.3.1 Forms during the phallic stage of psychosexual development. We learn to internalise our parental values and social standards. The morality principle.
5 defence mechanisms
5.1 Denial
5.1.1 Reduce anxiety by refusing to see bad aspects e.g. getting poor grades and telling yourself that it doesn't matter
5.2 Displacement
5.2.1 Redirecting emotions to a safer outlet Instead of punching a person punch a pillow
5.3 Rationalisation
5.3.1 Giving a justification for something An alcoholic says they drink wine as it is good for you instead of facing that they are an alcoholic
5.4 Sublimation
5.4.1 Chanelling impulses to socially accepted behaviours Joining the army to hide violent behaviour
6 Case studies
6.1 Little Hans
6.1.1 Little Hans had a fear of horses. The horse had black mouth and eyes. Freud said this was Hans expressing the Oedipus complex, fear of his father Hans had seen a horse fall over and kill someone Freud never met Hans, he came up with this from letters Hans father wrote to Freud
7 Strengths
7.1 Acknowledges how childhood determines adult personality
7.2 Offers causal explanations of underlying atypical psychological conditions
7.3 This method of psychoanalysis is still used today
8 Limitations
8.1 It is unfalsifiable and therefore not scientific
8.2 Case study method means that results cannot be generalised
8.3 Idea that infants display sexual urges has received enormous criticism
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