Chapter 2

Brooklyn Bentley
Mind Map by Brooklyn Bentley, updated more than 1 year ago
Brooklyn Bentley
Created by Brooklyn Bentley about 5 years ago
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chapter 2 concept map

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Chapter 2
  1. The Scientific Approach to Behaviour
    1. Measure and Description
      1. -Develop measurement techniques that made it possible to describe (ex) behaviour correctly
      2. Understanding and Prediction
        1. -Scientists believe they have a better understanding of what's going on/events when they can explain reason for
          1. A hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables
            1. Variables measure conditions/behaviours that are controlled or observed
        2. Application and Control
          1. Theory's are systems of interrelated ides used to explain observations
          2. Step 5 Report The Findings
            1. To report the findings they use a journal -It is a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material -Usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
              1. The process of publishing allows experts to critique and analyze their findings and disclose any flaws
            2. Step 1 Formulate a Hypothesis
              1. Variables must be clearly defined
                1. Operational Definition describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
              2. Step 2 Select the method and Design the study
                1. How to put the hypothesis into Empirical Test; Once a method is chosen, (experiments, case studies, surveys) they must make a detailed plan
                  1. How many participants, Who (animals or humans), age, gender
                2. Step 3 Collect Data
                  1. Data Collection Techniques Include:
                    1. Direct observation Questionnaire Interview Psychological Test Physiological Recording Examination of Archival records
                  2. Step 4 Analyze the data and draw conclusions
                    1. Observations are usually put into numbers
                      1. Researchers use statistics to analyze their data and decide whether their hypothesis was supported
                  3. Experimental Research
                    1. Independent and Dependent Variables
                      1. Independent Variable is a condition or event that an experiment varies in order to see its impact on another variable
                        1. Dependent Variable is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the Independent
                          1. The dependent measures the subjects behaviours
                          2. Experimental and Control Groups
                            1. The Experimental Group consist of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
                              1. The Control Group consists of similar subjects who do not receive special treatment
                            2. Variations in Designing Experiments
                              1. Some experiments can be conducted with just one independent and dependent variable
                                1. Sometimes it has a advantage to use one group of subjects that serve as their own control group
                                  1. It is also possible to manipulate more than 1 independent variable in a experiment
                              2. Extraneous Variables
                                1. Extraneous Variables are any variables other than the independent variable that seems likley to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
                                  1. A Cofounding Variable occurs when 2 variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
                                    1. Random assignment of subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition of the study
                              3. Mean, Median and Mode
                                1. The Mean is the average of the scores in distribution
                                  1. The Median is the score that stands exactly in the center of the distribution scores
                                    1. The Mode is the most frequent score in distribution
                                2. Experimenter Bias
                                  1. Experimenter Bias happens when a researchers expectations about the outcome influence the results obtained
                                    1. One problem with this is sometimes researchers see what they want to see
                                      1. One other problem with this is called the double-blind procedure, it is a research strategy that neither subjects or experimenters know which group is which
                                  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Correlation Research
                                    1. An advantage to this method is it gives researchers a different way to explore the questions that could not be examined using experimental procedures
                                      1. Descriptive correlation broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study
                                        1. One disadvantage is that researchers cannot control events to isolate cause and effect relationships
                                          1. Correlation research cannot demonstrate that two variables are related
                                    2. Placebo
                                      1. A placebo effect is when participants are in an experiment and their expectations are lead on the be on thing even though what they have received was fake.
                                      2. Surveys
                                        1. In a survey, researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of the participants behaviour
                                          1. Surveys are also used in for social issues in the public
                                            1. One major problem with surveys are they depend on self report data
                                        2. Case Studies
                                          1. A Case Study is an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
                                            1. Case Studies work particularly well when working with psychological disorders and neuropsychological issues
                                              1. One main problem with Case Studies is they are very subjective
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