Materials and their properties (updated Oct)

T Andrews
Mind Map by , created about 3 years ago

Mind map of basic material properties by material.

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Billie Juniper
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T Andrews
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Materials and their properties (updated Oct)
1 Metals
1.1 Ferrous
1.1.1 CAST IRON
1.1.1.1 Pros
1.1.1.1.1 Strong
1.1.1.1.2 Tough
1.1.1.1.3 Stiff
1.1.1.1.4 Cheap
1.1.1.1.5 Easily Machined
1.1.1.1.6 Easily Recycled
1.1.1.2 Cons
1.1.1.2.1 Rusts
1.1.1.2.2 High Density
1.1.1.2.3 Poor Toughness
1.1.1.2.3.1 Can be alloyed to improve
1.1.1.3 Uses
1.1.1.3.1 Brake Discs
1.1.1.3.2 Machine Tools
1.1.2 MILD STEEL
1.1.2.1 Pros
1.1.2.1.1 Strong
1.1.2.1.2 Stiff
1.1.2.1.3 Tough
1.1.2.1.4 Very Cheap
1.1.2.1.5 Malleable
1.1.2.1.6 Easily Recycled (magnetic)
1.1.2.2 Cons
1.1.2.2.1 High Density
1.1.2.2.2 Poor Electrical and Thermal Conductivity
1.1.2.3 Uses
1.1.2.3.1 Large Structures
1.1.2.3.1.1 Bridges
1.1.2.3.1.2 Buildings
1.1.2.3.1.3 Oil Rigs
1.1.2.3.2 Car Body Panels
1.1.2.3.3 Trains
1.1.2.3.4 Machine Tools
1.1.2.3.5 Pressure Vessels
1.1.2.4 Process
1.1.2.4.1 Metal Forming
1.1.2.4.1.1 Die Casting
1.1.2.4.1.2 Rolling is important for structures like I-beams
1.1.2.4.1.3 Easily Extruded for pipes, tubes, wire
1.1.2.4.2 Readily Machined
1.1.2.4.3 Joining
1.1.2.4.3.1 Suitable for most
1.1.2.4.3.2 Not suitable for soldering or brazing
1.1.3 STAINLESS STEEL
1.1.3.1 Pros
1.1.3.1.1 Corrosion Resistant
1.1.3.1.2 Strong
1.1.3.1.3 Tough
1.1.3.1.4 Ductile
1.1.3.1.5 Stiff
1.1.3.1.6 Cheap
1.1.3.1.7 Malleable
1.1.3.1.8 Easily Recycled (magnetic)
1.1.3.2 Cons
1.1.3.2.1 Expensive
1.1.3.2.2 High Density
1.1.3.2.3 Poor Electrical and Thermal Conductivity
1.1.3.3 Uses
1.1.3.3.1 Cutlery
1.1.3.3.2 Chemical Plant and Surgical Instruments
1.1.3.4 Process
1.1.3.4.1 Metal Forming
1.1.3.4.1.1 Usually Wrought
1.1.3.4.1.2 Not Cast
1.1.3.4.1.3 Powder Metal Forming
1.1.3.4.2 Joining
1.1.3.4.2.1 Suitable for most
1.1.3.4.2.2 Not suitable for soldering or brazing
1.2 Non Ferrous
1.2.1 BRASS
1.2.1.1 Pros
1.2.1.1.1 Reasonably Strong
1.2.1.1.2 Corrosion Resistant
1.2.1.1.3 Easy to Shape
1.2.1.2 Cons
1.2.1.2.1 Expensive
1.2.1.3 Uses
1.2.1.3.1 Ornamental Fittings
1.2.1.3.2 Plumbing Fittings
1.2.1.3.3 Screws
1.2.1.3.4 Bullets
1.2.1.4 Process
1.2.1.4.1 Readily Machined
1.2.1.4.2 Soldering and Brazing
1.2.1.4.3 Readily Extruded as quite soft
1.2.2 COPPER
1.2.2.1 Pros
1.2.2.1.1 Electrical Conductivity
1.2.2.1.2 Corrosion Resistant
1.2.2.1.3 Ductile
1.2.2.1.4 Malleable
1.2.2.2 Cons
1.2.2.2.1 Expensive
1.2.2.2.2 Low Strength
1.2.2.3 Uses
1.2.2.3.1 Electrical Wire
1.2.2.3.2 Domestic Water Pipes
1.2.2.3.3 Coins
1.2.2.4 Process
1.2.2.4.1 Metel Forming
1.2.2.4.1.1 Easily Cast
1.2.2.4.1.2 Readily Extruded because soft
1.2.2.4.2 Readily Machined
1.2.2.4.3 Soldering and Brazing for electrical connection and pipe
1.2.3 ALUMINIUM
1.2.3.1 Pros
1.2.3.1.1 Lightweight
1.2.3.1.2 Durable
1.2.3.1.3 Corrosion Resistant
1.2.3.1.4 Stiff
1.2.3.1.5 Ductile
1.2.3.1.6 Malleable
1.2.3.1.7 Easy to recycle
1.2.3.2 Cons
1.2.3.2.1 Difficult to Weld
1.2.3.3 Uses
1.2.3.3.1 Aircraft
1.2.3.3.2 Bicycles
1.2.3.3.3 Car Engines
1.2.3.3.4 Space Frame car bodies
1.2.3.3.5 Drinks Cans
1.2.3.3.6 Window Frames
1.2.3.4 Process
1.2.3.4.1 Metal Forming
1.2.3.4.1.1 Easy with most
1.2.3.4.1.2 Difficulties with oxidising in powder process
1.2.3.4.1.3 Rolling (foil)
1.2.3.4.1.4 Die Casting common
1.2.3.4.1.5 Readily Extruded
1.2.3.4.1.6 Sheet Forming (cars)
1.2.3.4.2 Machining
1.2.3.4.2.1 Soft, so easily machined
1.2.3.4.3 Joining
1.2.3.4.3.1 Suitable for most
1.2.3.4.3.2 Difficult to arc-weld and an inert gas is needed
1.2.4 TITANIUM
1.2.4.1 Pros
1.2.4.1.1 Strong, even at high temps
1.2.4.1.2 Hard Wearing
1.2.4.1.3 Non Corrosive
1.2.4.1.4 Light Weight
1.2.4.1.5 Stiff
1.2.4.1.6 Chemically Inert in Human Body
1.2.4.2 Cons
1.2.4.2.1 Expensive
1.2.4.2.2 Chemically reactive when hot
1.2.4.2.3 Difficult to Shape
1.2.4.3 Uses
1.2.4.3.1 Surgical Implants
1.2.4.3.2 Performance Bicycles
1.2.4.3.3 Fan Blades for Aircraft
1.2.4.4 Process
1.2.4.4.1 Metal Forming
1.2.4.4.1.1 Special Die Casting Process Needed Because Reactive
1.2.4.4.1.2 Forging for Aircraft
1.2.4.4.2 Arc Welding only with inert gas or in vacuum
2 Polymers
2.1 Thermosetting/thermosets
2.1.1 Characteristics
2.1.1.1 Harder
2.1.1.2 Stronger
2.1.1.3 When Heated
2.1.1.3.1 permanently hard
2.1.1.3.2 pressure can be applied to cure
2.1.1.3.3 degeneration if heated excessively
2.1.1.3.4 Toxic Fumes
2.1.1.4 Brittle
2.1.1.5 Better stability
2.2 Thermoplastic/thermoplasts
2.2.1 Characteristics
2.2.1.1 Soft
2.2.1.2 Ductile
2.2.1.3 Flexible
2.2.1.4 Can be manufactured on a branch
2.2.1.5 Sensitive to temperature
2.2.1.6 When Heated
2.2.1.6.1 Soften
2.2.1.6.2 Eventually Liquify
2.2.1.6.3 Reversible and can be repeated
2.2.1.6.4 No toxic fumes
2.2.2 Polythene
2.2.2.1 Pros
2.2.2.1.1 High Density
2.2.2.1.2 Resistant to Chemicals
2.2.2.1.3 Tough
2.2.2.1.4 Cheap
2.2.2.1.5 Flexible
2.2.2.1.6 Electrical Resistance
2.2.2.1.7 Transparent
2.2.2.1.8 Easily Coloured
2.2.2.2 Uses
2.2.2.2.1 Dustbins
2.2.2.2.2 Water and Gas Pipes
2.2.2.2.3 Carrier Bags
2.2.2.2.4 Food Packaging
2.2.2.2.5 Sandwich Boxes
2.2.2.3 Process
2.2.2.3.1 Polymer Forming
2.2.2.3.1.1 Most suitable, injection moulding most common
2.2.2.3.1.2 Extruded for pipes
2.2.2.3.1.3 Rotational moulding for large products (i.e. dustbins)
2.2.2.3.1.4 Blow Moulding for bottles
2.2.2.3.1.5 Vacuum forming for packaging
2.2.2.3.2 Machining
2.2.2.3.2.1 Soft so easily machined
2.2.2.3.2.2 Usually formed to near-net-shape so little cutting needed
2.2.2.3.2.3 No polishing needed
2.2.2.3.3 Joining
2.2.2.3.3.1 Adhesive bonding most common
2.2.2.3.3.2 Friction welding for pipes
2.2.3 Nylon
2.2.3.1 Pros
2.2.3.1.1 Strong
2.2.3.1.2 Lightweight
2.2.3.1.3 Used for broad range of products
2.2.3.1.4 Easily made as a fibre
2.2.3.1.5 Good heat resistance <250°
2.2.3.2 Uses
2.2.3.2.1 Clothes
2.2.3.2.2 Fishing Line
2.2.3.2.3 Small Gears
2.2.3.2.4 Zip Fasteners
2.2.3.2.5 Power Tool Cases
3 Composites
3.1 GRP GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC
3.1.1 Properties
3.1.1.1 Not Brittle
3.1.1.2 Ductile
3.1.1.3 Chemical Resistance
3.1.2 Uses
3.1.2.1 Aerospace
3.1.2.2 Automotive
3.1.2.3 Underwater
3.1.3 Sheets of glass fibre laid at right angles sandwiched between a plastic
3.1.3.1 Usually done in a mould and left to cure
3.2 Reinforced Concrete
4 Ceramics
4.1 Types
4.1.1 Clay Mineral
4.1.2 Glass
4.1.3 Cement
4.2 Properties
4.2.1 Good Insulators
4.2.2 Poor Conductors
4.2.3 Hard
4.2.4 Brittle
4.2.5 Resistant to
4.2.5.1 High Temperatures
4.2.5.2 Harsh Environments

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