Immunoglobulins

w.tetteh
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

(Immunology) Mind Map on Immunoglobulins, created by w.tetteh on 05/01/2013.

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w.tetteh
Created by w.tetteh over 6 years ago
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Immunoglobulins
1 5 classes
1.1 Ig A
1.1.1 Secretory- dimeric
1.1.1.1 has SC that protects in harsh enviroment of secretions
1.1.2 2 subclasses IgA1/A2
1.1.3 Serum-monomeric
1.2 Ig D
1.2.1 Very low serum concentrations
1.2.2 Found on lymphocyte surface
1.2.3 Function unclear
1.3 Ig G
1.3.1 Most abundant Ig in plasma
1.3.2 It has 4 subasses-IgG1/G2/G3/G4
1.3.3 Efficient at triggering complement and phagocytosis via Fc receptors
1.3.4 Only antibody to cross placenta to foetus
1.3.5 Predominant antibody in 2nd response
1.4 Ig M
1.4.1 Only in plasma and secretion too large to enter tissue
1.4.2 Pentamer, joined by J chains and disulphide bridges
1.4.3 Heavy chains has 5 domains
1.4.4 good at agglutinating particles e.g viruses, efficient at activating complement
1.4.5 Predominant antibody in 1st response
1.5 Ig E
1.5.1 Extra C domain
1.5.2 Associated with allergic response
1.5.3 Protects against parasites
2 Structure of antibody
2.1
2.1.1 Light chains have 2 types- Lambda and kappa
2.1.1.1 Fold up into 2 domaians-VL and CL, each domain made of 2 Beta sheets linksed b y a disulphide bridge
2.1.2 Heavy chain determines the class of the antibody
2.1.2.1 Fold into 4(5) domains-VH, CH1,CH2,CH3 (CH4)
2.2 Fab- responsible for binding the antigen
2.3 Fc-reponsible for effector function (clearance mechanisms)
3 How are antigens recognised?
3.1 3 hypervariable loobs (CDR) in each variable domain (VH & VL) form the antigen binding site
3.2 Antibody recognises structural epitopes on the antigen
3.3 Binds antigen with non- covalent interactions
4 Effect of Antibodies
4.1 Blocking of entry to pathogens
4.1.1 Antibody binds to virus preventing it binding with receptors so preventing fusion event
4.1.2 Antibodies against adhesion bind to bacterial and prevent colonization and therefore uptake
4.2 Neutralisation of toxins
4.2.1 IgG and IgA bind to solube toxin preventing them from binding to cellular receptors and poisoning the cell
4.3 Activation of classical complement pathway (IgM or Ig G) which leads to bacterial cell lysis
4.3.1 IgM binds to antigens on bacterial surface, adopt staple form. C1q complex binds to IgM and activates C1r which cleaves and activates serine protease
4.3.2 IgG bind to antigens on bacterial surface. C1q cmplx binds to at least 2 IgG molecules. This activates C1r which cleaves and activates serine protease
4.4 Bacterial opsonisation
4.4.1 1) Bacterial is coated in complement and antibody
4.4.2 2) When complement bind to receptor and the antibody binds to the Fc receptor on macrophage membrane the bacteria is phagocytosed
4.4.3 3) Macrophage membrane fuse forming a phagosome
4.4.4 4) Lysosomes fuse with hagosome and release enzymes that degrade the bacteria
4.5 Fc mediated clearance through cross-links
4.5.1 Aggregation of antibody on bacterial surface allows cross-llinking of Fc receptor and activation of macrohage, leading to phagocytosis and destruction

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