Research Enterprise in Psychology

Darby Milman
Mind Map by Darby Milman, updated more than 1 year ago
Darby Milman
Created by Darby Milman about 5 years ago


Mind map for Psychology 104 chapter 2

Resource summary

Research Enterprise in Psychology
  1. Goals of Scientific Enterprise
    1. 1. Measurement & Description
      1. Investigator must figure out a way to measure what they are studying. Develop measurement techniques to make it possible to describe behaviour
      2. 2. Understanding & Prediction
        1. Scientists believe that they understand events when they can explain the reasons for the occurrence of the events. Hypothesis is made & testes to evaluate understanding.
          1. Hypothesis: Statement about the relationship between two or more variables
            1. Variables: Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviours that are controlled or observed in a study.
          2. 3. Application & Control
            1. Once a phenomenon is understood, more control can be exerted on it. Finding practical value in helping solve everyday problems.
              1. Theory: System of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations. Allows for coherent leap from the description of behaviour to the understanding of behaviour
                1. If findings supports hypotheses, confidence in the theory grows, if their findings fail to support hypothesis, confidence in the theory diminishes (theory then must be revised or discarded).
            2. Steps in a Scientific Investigation


              • Systematic: follow orderly pattern
              1. 1) Formulate a Testable Hypothesis
                1. Translate theory into testable hypothesis. variables under study must be clearly defined.
                  1. Operational Definition: Describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
                2. 2) Select the Research Method & Design the Study
                  1. Figure out how to put hypothesis to an empirical test (experiments, case studies, surveys, naturalistic observations). Must create detailed plans for executing study (participants).
                    1. Participants/Subjects: are the persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study.
                  2. 3) Collect the Data
                    1. Use a variety of data collection techniques: procedures for making empirical observations & measurements
                    2. 4) Analyze the Data & Draw Conclusions
                      1. Observations converted to numbers. Use Statistics to analyze their data & decide whether hypothesis has been supported.
                      2. 5) Report the Findings
                        1. Publication of research results in a fundamental aspect of the scientific enterprise. Write a concise summary of the study & its findings, delivered to meeting & submitted to a Journal for publication.
                          1. Journal: A periodical that publishes technical & scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry.
                            1. Allows for experts to evaluate & critique new research findings. Evaluation process is a major strength of the scientific approach because it gradually weeds out erroneous findings.
                        2. Advantages of Scientific Approach
                          1. 2 Major Advantages
                            1. 1) Clarity & Precision: Must specify exactly what they are talking about when they formulate hypothesis (enhances communication)
                              1. 2) Intolerance of Error: Must be skeptical, empirical tests,scrutinization, demand objective data & thorough documentation
                              2. Tends to yield more accurate & dependable info than casual analysis
                                1. Research Methods: Consists of various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, & control of variables in an empirical study.
                                2. Experimental Research
                                  1. Experiment: Research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions & observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result. (How X affects Y or vise versa)
                                    1. Independent & Dependent Variables
                                      1. Independent Variable: A condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable (manipulated). Free to be varied.
                                        1. Dependent Variable: The variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable (measurement of some aspect). Depends on manipulations of independent variable.
                                        2. Experimental & Control Groups
                                          1. Experimental Group: Consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
                                            1. Control Group: Consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
                                              1. Crucial the two groups be alike
                                              2. Extraneous Variables
                                                1. Any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
                                                  1. Confounding of Variables: Occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.
                                                    1. Safeguard: Random assignment of subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study
                                                    2. Variations in Designing Experiments
                                                      1. Within-subjects design: When subjects serve as their own control group because comparisons are made within the same group of participants
                                                        1. Between-subjects design: Two or more independent groups of subjects are exposed to a manipulation of an independent variable because comparisons are made between two different groups of participants


                                                          • More popular- require fewer participants & they ensure that the experimental & control groups are equivalent
                                                        2. Advantages
                                                          1. Powerful research method
                                                            1. Permits conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships between variables
                                                              1. Precise control available
                                                              2. Disadvantages
                                                                1. Experiments are often artificial
                                                                  1. Solution - Field Experiment: Research studies that use settings that are very much like real life
                                                                  2. Experimental method can't be used to explore some research questions
                                                                2. Descriptive/Correlational Research
                                                                  1. Naturalistic Observations
                                                                    1. A researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the research subjects or participants
                                                                      1. Behaviour is allowed to unfold naturally
                                                                        1. Less artificial conditions
                                                                          1. Animals
                                                                            1. Reactivity: Occurs when a subjects behaviour is altered by presence of observer
                                                                              1. Difficult to translate observations into numerical data that permit precise statistic analysis
                                                                              2. Case Studies
                                                                                1. In depth investigation of an individual subject
                                                                                  1. Henry Molaison
                                                                                    1. Can be highly subjective
                                                                                      1. Well suited for investigation certain phenomena
                                                                                      2. Surveys
                                                                                        1. Researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants behaviour
                                                                                          1. Depend on self-report data
                                                                                            1. Intentional deception, wishful thinking, memory lapses & poorly worded questions can distort research
                                                                                            2. Sampling Bias: Sample on which it is based is not representative of the population
                                                                                            3. Advantages
                                                                                              1. Gives researches a way to explore questions that could not be examined by experimental procedures
                                                                                                1. Broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study
                                                                                                2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                  1. Investigators cannot control events to isolate cause & effect
                                                                                                    1. Research cannot demonstrate conclusively that 2 variables are casually related
                                                                                                      1. Third variable
                                                                                                    2. Statistics & Research
                                                                                                      1. The use of mathematics to organize, summarize, & interpret numerical data
                                                                                                        1. Central Tendency
                                                                                                          1. Mean
                                                                                                            1. The arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
                                                                                                            2. Median
                                                                                                              1. The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores
                                                                                                              2. Mode
                                                                                                                1. Most frequent score in a distribution
                                                                                                            3. Ethics in Research
                                                                                                              1. Should not participate in torture
                                                                                                                1. Tell the truth & report findings accurately
                                                                                                                  1. Concern about the possibility for inflicting harm on participants
                                                                                                                    1. Key Principles of CPA
                                                                                                                      1. 1) Respect for the Dignity of Persons
                                                                                                                        1. 2) Responsible Caring
                                                                                                                          1. 3) Integrity in Relationships
                                                                                                                            1. 4) Responsibility to Society
                                                                                                                            2. Safeguards to protect the vulnerable
                                                                                                                              1. Minimalize discomfort
                                                                                                                                1. Animals should not be used unless deemed that the results will benefit both humans & animals
                                                                                                                                  1. Tri-Council
                                                                                                                                    1. Formulated their own set of ethical standards that must be adhered to for any research to be eligible for funding
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