Piliavin 1969

katherine.crick
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Piliavin, I.M., Rodin, J.A. & Piliavin, J. (1969) Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon?

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katherine.crick
Created by katherine.crick over 5 years ago
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Piliavin 1969
1 Method
1.1 Field Experiment
1.1.1 conducted in a train station on the subway weekdays 11am-3pm
1.2 IVs: The race and type of victim (drunk or ill), presence of models and no. of bystanders.
1.3 DVs: Speed and frequency of help.
1.4 Aim: To investigate the effect on helping behaviour of the type of victim (drunk or respectable) and the race (black or white).
2 Evaluation
2.1 Strengths
2.1.1 high ecological validity in a real-life environment
2.1.1.1 no demand characteristics
2.1.2 large sample
2.1.2.1 4450 people- more generalisable
2.2 Weaknesses
2.2.1 No informed consent, deception and lack of debriefing.
2.2.1.1 chance of causing distress and social and emotional harm.
2.2.2 field experiment with low controls
3 Results
3.1 90% of helpers were male.
3.2 Slight 'same-race' effect.
3.3 Black victims received less help less quickly.
3.4 cane victim received spontaneous help 95% of the time.
3.5 cane victim was helped on average within 5 seconds.
3.6 drunk victim was helped on average after 109 seconds.
3.7 drunk victim was spontaneously helped 50% of the time.
4 Procedure
4.1 4 teams aged 24-29
4.1.1 4 students per team
4.1.1.1 2 female observers, 1 male confederate, 1 male victim
4.2 each trial lasted 7 1/2 minutes
4.2.1 70 seconds after the train leaves, the victim collapses
4.2.1.1 if no help is given, confederate steps in after 70 or 150 seconds in both critical and adjacent
4.3 Triangulation- both qual and quan data gathered
4.3.1 length of time, amount of helpers, race, gender, comments and location of surrounding people
4.3.1.1 e.g. "It's for men to help him"
5 Background
5.1 March 1964- Nurse Kitty Genovese was stabbed in New York City at 3am.
5.2 There were 38 witnesses who didn't attempt to help her.
5.2.1 Diffusion of responsibility- the idea that people are less likely to help someone if there are others present, as they perceive responsibility as shared between all present, and see themselves as being less personally responsible.
6 Conclusions
6.1 An emergency situation arouses the attention of a bystander
6.1.1 people are more likely to help if they feel physically close to the victim, for example, the same race.
6.1.1.1 no evidence for diffusion of responsibility- no more or less likely to help when surrounded by others.

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