Brezhnev Era

rhiannonjones96
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels History Mind Map on Brezhnev Era, created by rhiannonjones96 on 03/19/2014.

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rhiannonjones96
Created by rhiannonjones96 over 5 years ago
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Brezhnev Era
1 Politics
1.1 Consolidation of power
1.1.1 October 1964 - Initially collective leadership
1.1.1.1 Brezhnev - first secretary
1.1.1.2 Kosygin - Prime minister (C of M)
1.1.1.3 Brezhnev's priorities: 1. reassure unpredicatbility and instability over. 2. make political position secure
1.1.2 Promoted his supporters - e.g. Chernenko - 'Dnieper Mafia'.
1.1.2.1 powerful by 1966
1.1.3 1970 - Kosygin had retired from public view - 1976 - Brezhnev universally acclaimed leader
1.2 Corruption
1.2.1 elected who he liked to control KGB
1.2.2 Andropov in KGB and Politburo member
1.3 End of reign
1.4 stability
1.4.1 Stability of cadres
1.4.1.1 assured the Nomenklatura system.
1.4.2 average age of politicians rose from 58 in 1960 to 68 in 1978
1.4.3 "No dynamism or longing for radical change" - laver
1.4.4 Poltiburo meetings: 1960 - 3-6 hours but by 1980 30-40 mins
2 Economics
2.1 Agriculture
2.1.1 Positives:
2.1.1.1 Peasants given internal passports
2.1.1.2 Stability - increased procurement prices

Annotations:

  • Westwood - "better to have a stable though imperfect chain of command than a system constantly in the throws of upheaval." Thompson - end to hurricane 'campaignist' approach.
2.1.1.3 increased investment - tripled - 1976-80 - 26.2%

Annotations:

  • But US only invested 4% but had food to feed country.
2.1.1.4 Peasants satisfied 70% of their needs
2.1.1.5 wages only 10% lower than urban
2.1.2 Negatives:
2.1.2.1 Growth poor - prod growth -4%
2.1.2.2 Shortage of goods - riots in Sverdiovsk
2.1.2.3 1977 - government subsidies of 19,000 million roubles
2.1.2.4 criticism of the link/brigade system - RAPO's
2.1.2.5 Had to import 40 million tonnes annually
2.1.2.6 30% ag output from private plots - only 4% cultivated area
2.2 Industry
2.2.1 Positives
2.2.1.1 More consumer goods
2.2.1.2 Trade unions formed to support human rights
2.2.1.3 Politburo listened to intellectuals and experts more

Annotations:

  • Thompson "Brez era - witnessed widening of channels through which individuals, groups and institutions could influence the policy process"
2.2.1.4 material wellbeing
2.2.1.4.1 secure and more freedom at work

Annotations:

  • labour turnover 25-30%
2.2.2 Negatives
2.2.2.1 Westwood - decline in GNP: 5% in early 1960s to 2% in late 80s
2.2.2.2 Less than 1% growth in iron
2.2.2.2.1 construction weak and transport inadequacies

Annotations:

  • Policies of Gospan - quick fix character
2.2.2.3 economy less suited to centralised planning - more complex
2.2.2.4 Westwood - "economy using yesterday's methods, investments and products."
2.2.2.5 Shturm - storming common - poor quality goods
2.2.2.6 short-termism - deliberately set low targets
2.2.2.7 Defence burden - 15-17% (some say 25-30%)
2.2.2.8 Superficial growth - oil and gold price increase fivefold
2.3 Standard of Living/ social
2.3.1 Improvements
2.3.1.1 planned growth of consumer goods - average 70% - meat increase 40.5%
2.3.1.2 Proportion of households with TV - 1965: 24% - 1984: 96%
2.3.2 problems
2.3.2.1 increased wages but not much higher standards
2.3.2.1.1 Shortages and queues - people saved up
2.3.2.1.1.1 but the privileged could easily buy food - dissatisfaction
3 Foreign Policy
3.1 War in Afghanistan
3.2 Prague Spring 1968
3.3 Detente
3.4 Relations with China
4 Dissidence/intellectuals
4.1 Human Rights
4.2 Supression of culture
4.3

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