C3.1 The Periodic Table

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GCSE Chemistry (C3) Mind Map on C3.1 The Periodic Table, created by mhancoc3 on 03/20/2014.

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C3.1 The Periodic Table
1 The Early Periodic Table
1.1 19th Century - elements found every year, so they tried to find patterns
1.1.1 John Dalton arranged in order of masses
1.1.2 1864 -John Newlands built on Dalton's ideas with the rule of octaves Properties of every 8th Element were similar Assumed all elements had been found
1.1.3 Mendeleev 1869 - Dmitri Mendeleev placed in order of atomic weight and arranged to create a pattern Left Gaps
2 The Modern Periodic Table
2.1 Some of Mendeleev's table had faults
2.1.1 Some didn't fit the pattern
2.1.2 Some had odd properties
2.2 20th century - learned more about structure of the atom
2.2.1 Began arranging by proton number
2.3 Groups
2.3.1 react in similar ways
2.3.2 Outer shell has same number of electrons Group number tells us what this number is
2.3.3 As we go down the group, the atom gets bigger Lose and Gain electrons easily Further away from the neucleus
3 Group 1 - Alkali Metals
3.1 Contains:
3.1.1 Li
3.1.2 Na
3.1.3 K
3.1.4 Rb
3.1.5 Cs
3.1.6 Fr Radioactive
3.2 Properties
3.2.1 Extremely reactive
3.2.2 Stored in oil or reaction with air occurs
3.2.3 Low density
3.2.4 Soft
3.2.5 Shiny before reaction with air but oxide soon is made
3.2.6 Lose 1 electron to become a noble gas
3.2.7 React with non metals
3.2.8 Form an ion of 1+ charge
3.2.9 Form ionic compounds
3.2.10 Low boiling point
3.3 Reaction with Water
3.3.1 Fizzing because of hydrogen
3.3.2 K creates lilac flame
3.3.3 Metal hydroxide
3.3.4 soluble
3.3.5 solution with a high pH
3.4 Other Reactions
3.4.1 With chlorine makes metal chloride
3.4.2 Ionic compounds of alkali metals are usually white
4 Transition Elements/Metals
4.1 Physical Properties
4.1.1 Conduct electricity and energy
4.1.2 Hard and strong
4.1.3 Very dense
4.1.4 High melting point
4.2 Chemical Properties
4.2.1 Not as reactive as group 1.
4.2.2 Corrode Slowly
4.2.3 Good structural properties
4.3 Compounds of the metals
4.3.1 Coloured compounds
4.3.2 Transition elements can form more than one ion (hence the roman numeral)
4.3.3 Useful as catalysts
5 Group 7 - The Halogens
5.1 Properties
5.1.1 Poisonous non metals
5.1.2 coloured vapour
5.1.3 Low Melting and Boiling points
5.1.4 Poor conductors
5.2 Reactions
5.2.1 7 outer shell electrons
5.2.2 Both ionic and covalent bonding
5.2.3 With metals
5.2.4 Non metals gives covalent bond
5.2.5 Displacement Reactions Use a more reactive halogen to displace another from a salt solution
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