Explanations of Gender Development

MeganAbigail
Mind Map by MeganAbigail, updated more than 1 year ago
MeganAbigail
Created by MeganAbigail almost 7 years ago
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AS Levels Psychology Mind Map on Explanations of Gender Development, created by MeganAbigail on 05/01/2013.
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Explanations of Gender Development
1 Biological explanations
1.1 Biological theories focus on the biology behind sex and gender.
1.1.1 Evolution provides an explanation for gender differences as it would say that men and women have evolved to pass on genes, e.g. women are carers
2 The effect of chromosomes
2.1 Each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Sex is determined by the combination of chromosomes for the 23rd pair.
2.2 Typical chromosome patterns, male=XY and female=XX
2.3 Atypical Chromosome patterns
2.3.1 Any chromosome patterns other than XX and XY are seen as atypical.
2.3.1.1 It is good to study people with atypical chromosome patterns as they can compare typical and atypical behaviours to see if chromosomes effect gender
2.3.2 Turners Syndrome
2.3.2.1 Higher than average verbal ability, lower than average spatial ability, visual memory and maths skills. Difficulty relating to peers
2.3.3 Klinefelter's syndrome
2.3.3.1 Lack of interest in sexual activity, shy, passive, poor lang. skills/reading ability, higher than normal level of gender identity confusion
3 The effect of hormones
3.1 Hormones; chemical substances produced by the body that control/regulate the activity of certain cells/organs
3.2 Male hormone; testosterone, female hormone; oestrogen
3.3 Van Goozen et al.
3.3.1 Aim; To investigate the effect of sex hormones on adult behaviour
3.3.1.1 Method; used experimental method, studied transexuals of both sexes who were going under hormone treatment, injected with hormones of opposite sex.
3.3.1.1.1 Given a range of treatments before treatment and then again three months later
3.3.1.1.1.1 Results; male to female transexuals show decreases in aggression and increases in verbal fluency. Female to male show the opposite
3.3.1.1.1.1.1 Conclusion; Sex hormones effect gender behaviours
3.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Evaluation; not controlled experiment, changes may have been due to uncontrolled variables e..g. transexuals own expectations
3.4 CAH
3.4.1 Female born with normal XX chromosomes but exposed to excessive androgens in the womb. Have male like genitals but most identified as girls at birth.
3.4.1.1 Many studies show that most identify themselves as tomboys
4 Brain differences
4.1 Hypothalmus
4.1.1 Larger in men than women, makes women coy and men promiscious
4.2 Cerebral Hemispheres
4.2.1 Differences in the structure, women have superior language and men have superior visual spatial and mathematical skills
5 Evaluation of Biological Explanations
5.1 Some evidence supports the view that biological differences between males and females affects gender behaviour
5.2 The biological approach cannot explain why gender behaviours change over time
5.3 This is a reductionist view, reduces gender to biological factors and ignores the environment
5.4 The biological view is deterministic as it states that biology determines how we act and we have no choice
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